Menu
×
News
Get Involved
About Us
Our Members
References

References

1. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1009–1013.

2. Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Similar postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetics. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1221–1226.

3. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Wong J, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:753–758.

4. Court WE. Ginseng: The Genus Panax. Amsterdam: Harwood Scientific Publishers, 2000.

5. Tomoda M, Takeda K, Shimizu N, et al. Characterization of two acidic polysaccharides having immunological activities from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1993;16:22–25.

6. Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, et al. Characterization of two novel polysaccharides having immunological activities from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1993;16:1087–1090.

7. Oshima Y, Sato, K, Hikino H. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of quinquefolans A, B, and C, glycans of Panax quinquefolium roots. J Natural Products. 1987;50:188–190.

8. Assinewe VA, Arnason JT, Aubry A, et al. Extractable polysaccharides of Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng) root stimulate TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages. Phytomedicine 2002;9:398–404.

9. Gao QP, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Yamada H. Chemical properties and anti-complementary activities of polysaccharide fractions from roots and leaves of Panax ginseng. Planta Medica. 1989;55:9–12.

10. Pang PPT, Shan JJ, Chiu KW, inventors. Chemical and pharmacological standardization of herbal extracts. US Patent 6,156,291. December 5, 2000.

11. Shan JJ, Pang PPT, Huang B, Ling L, inventors. Process of making North American ginseng fractions, products containing them, and use as immunomodulators. US Patent 6,432,454 B1. August 14, 2002.

12. Quality systems and quality standards of COLD-fX®. Unpublished document provided by CV Technologies; October 2006.

13. Product License Issuance NPN 80002849 Non-Traditional – Cold-fX®. Letter received by CVT from the NHPD, February 13, 2007. Approval listing available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/applications/licen-prod/lists/listapprnhp-listeapprpsn_e.html.

14. McElhaney JE, Goel V, Toane B, et al. Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Alternative Complementary Med. 2006;12:153–157.

15. McElhaney JE, Gravenstein S, Cole SK, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:13–19.

16. Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin R, et al. Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Med Association J. 2005;173:1043–1048.

17. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP). E/S/C/O/P Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. Ginseng radix. Ginseng. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme; 2003:211–222.

18. Blumenthal M, Hall T, Goldberg A, Kunz T, Dinda K, Brinckmann J, Wollschlaeger B. The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; 2003:214–225.

19. Shibata S, Tanaka O, Shoji J, Saito H. Chemistry and pharmacology of Panax. In: Wagner H, Hikino H, Farnsworth NR. Economic and Medical Plant Research. Vol 1. London: Academic Press, Inc.; 1985:218–284.

20. Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, et al. The core structure of ginsenan PA, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:1287–1291.

21. Gao QP, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Yamada H. Chemical properties and anti-complementary activities of polysaccharide fractions from roots and leaves of Panax ginseng. Planta Medica. 1989;55:9–12.

22. Wang M, Guilbert LJ, Ling L, et al. Immunomodulating activity of CVT-E002, a proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53:1515–1523.

23. Wang M, Guilbert LJ, Li J, et al. A proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) enhances IL-2 and IFN-gamma productions in murine spleen cells induced by Con-A. International Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:311–315.

24. Jing Y, Chen N, Gravenstein S, Deng Y. A proprietary extract of Panax quinquefolius (CVT-E002) stimulates inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes and augments IFN-g secretion from NK cells in response to influenza virus stimulation. Unpublished manuscript provided by CV Technologies, September 2006.

25. Miller SC. The role of phytocompounds in immunoenhancement and cancer abatement. Presented at the North American Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 27, 2006.

26. Yang JC, Pang CS, Tsang SF, Ng KF. Effect of American ginseng extract (Panax quinquefolius) on formalin-induced nociception in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29:149–154.

27. Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin RE, Basu TK. Immune modulating effects of daily supplementation of COLD-fX (a proprietary extract of North American ginseng) in healthy adults. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2006;39:162–167.

28. Konno C, Murakami M, Oshima Y, Hikino H. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of panaxans Q, R, S, T and U, glycans of Panax ginseng root. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;14:69–74.

29. Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Variable effects of American ginseng: a batch of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) with a depressed ginsenoside profile does not affect postprandial glycemia. European J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:243–248.

30. CVT-E002—Safety Summary. Unpublished document provided by CV Technologies; October 2006.

31. Coon JT, Ernst E. Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Safety. 2002;25:323–344.

32. Bressler R. Herb-drug interactions: interactions between ginseng and prescription medications. Geriatrics. 2005;60:16–17.

33. King ML, Adler SR, and Murphy LL. Extraction-dependent effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor activation. Integrative Cancer Ther. 2006;5:236-243.

34. Ng TB, Liu F, Wang HX. The antioxidant effects of aqueous and organic extracts of Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Codonopsis pilosula, Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Glehnia littoralis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:285-­288.

35. Stavro PM, Woo M, Heim TF, et al. North American ginseng exerts a neutral effect on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. Hypertension. 2005:46:406–411.

36. Ueng YF, Chen CF. Effects of CVT-E002, a proprietary extract from the North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in C57BL/6J mice. J Chin Med. 2002;13:89–96.

37. Holt A, Shan J. Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by COLD-fX and REMEMBER-fX proprietary extracts of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). J Complementary Integrative Med. 2005;2:28.

38. Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, et al. Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin‘s effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:23–27.

39. Dasgupta A, Reyes MA. Effect of Brazilian, Indian, Siberian, Asian, and North American ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by immunoassays and binding of digoxin-like immunoreactive components of ginseng with Fab fragment of antidigoxin antibody (Digibind). Am J Clin Pathol. 2005;124:229–236.

40. Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, et al. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;119:298–303.

41. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005.

42. Goel DP, Geiger JD, Shan JJ, et al. Doping-control urinalysis of a ginseng extract, COLD-fX, in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14:473–480.

43. McElhaney J, Guilbert L, Hooten J, et al. Summary of studies with COLD-fX in high performance professional athletes assessing the tolerability and outcomes related to cold and flu like symptoms. Unpublished abstract presented at: First International Scientific Congress on Nutrition and Athletic Performance; August 10, 2001; Edmonton, Alberta.

44. Attele AS, Wu A, Yuan, CS. Ginseng pharmacology: Multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999;58:1685–1693.

45. Block KI, Mead MN. Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review. Integrative Cancer Therap. 2003;2:247–267.

46. Borchers AT, Hackman RM, Keen CL, et al. Complementary medicine: a review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1303–1312.

47. Chong SK, Brown HA, Rimmer E, et al. In vitro effect of Panax ginseng on phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation. International Arch Allergy Applied Immunol. 1984;73:216–220.

48. Gupta S, Agarwal SS, Epstein LB, et al. Panax: A new mitogen and interferon inducer. Clin Res. 1980;28:504A.

49. Lee YS, Chung IS, Lee IR, et al. Activation of multiple effector pathways of immune system by the antineoplastic immunostimulator acidic polysaccharide ginsan isolated from Panax ginseng. Anticancer Res. 1997;17:323–331.

50. Liu CX, Xiao PG. Recent advances on ginseng research in China. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992;36:27–38.

51. Liu M, Zhang JT. Immunoregulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in aged rats. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 1995;30:818–823.

52. Liu J, Wang S, Liu H, et al. Stimulatory effect of saponin from Panax ginseng on immune function of lymphocytes in the elderly. Mechanisms Age Devel. 1995;83:43–53.

53. Liu M, Zhang JT. Studies on the mechanisms of immunoregulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in aged rats. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 1996;31:95–100.

54. Luo YM, Cheng XJ, Yuan WX. Effects of ginseng root saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 on immunity in cold water swim stress mice and rats. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao/Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 1993;14:401–404.

55. Smolina TP, Solov’eva TF, Besednova NN. Immunotropic activity of panaxans—bioglycans isolated from ginseng [Russian]. Antibiotiki Khimioterapiia. 2001;46:19-22.

56. Song Z, Kharazmi A, Wu H, et al. Effects of ginseng treatment on neutrophil chemiluminescence and immunoglobulin G subclasses in a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Clin Diag Lab Immunol. 1998;5:882–887.

57. Guizhen Y, Yongli, Y. Immunopotentiating effect of traditional Chinese drugs—ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. Proc CAMS PUMC. 1990;5:188–193.

58. Jie YH, Cammisuli S, Baggiolini M. Immunomodulatory effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer in the mouse. Agents Actions. 1984;15:386–391.

59. Kim JY, Germolec DR, Luster MI. Panax ginseng as a potential immunomodulator: studies in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1990;12:257–276.

60. See DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or AIDS patients. Immunopharmacology. 1997;35:229–235.

61. Akagawa G, Abe S, Tansho S, et al. Protection of C3H/HE J mice from development of Candida albicans infection by oral administration of Juzen-taiho-to and its component, Ginseng radix: possible roles of macrophages in the host defense mechanisms. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996;18:73–89.

62. Hu S, Concha C, Johannisson A, et al. Effect of subcutaneous injection of ginseng on cows with subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Veterinary Med. 2001; Series B.48(7):519–528.

63. Hu S, Concha C, Lin F, Persson WK. Adjuvant effect of ginseng extracts on the immune responses to immunisation against Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle. Veterinary Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;91:29–37.

64. Liou CJ, Li ML, Tseng J. Intraperitoneal injection of ginseng extract enhances both immunoglobulin and cytokine production in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32:75–78.

65. Rivera E, Daggfeldt A, Hu S. Ginseng extract in aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Veterinary Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;91:19–27.

66. Rivera E, Ekholm PF, Inganas M, et al. The Rb1 fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccine. 2005;23:5411–5419.

67. Scaglione F, Ferrara F, Dugnani S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1990;16:537–542.

68. Sun HX, Ye YP, Pan HJ, Pan YJ. Adjuvant effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine. 2004;22:3882–3889.

69. Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;55:567–575.

70. Ernst E. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John’s Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:42–53.

71. Buettner C, Yeh GY, Phillips RS, et al. Systematic review of the effects of ginseng on cardiovascular risk factors. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:83–95.

72. Tesch BJ. Herbs commonly used by women: an evidence-based review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(5 Suppl):S44–55.

73. Palisin TE, Stacy JJ. Ginseng: is it in the root? Curr Sports Med Rep. 2006;5:210–214.

74. Linde K, Barrett B, Wolkart K, Bauer R, Melchart D. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(1):CD000530.

75. Marshall I. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001364.

76. Douglas RM, Hemilä H, Chalker E, et al. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4):CD000980.

77. Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Medica. 2004;70:293–298.

78. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, Asawamekin A, Chanchareon U. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Therap. 2004;29:37–45.

79. Kohut ML, Senchina DS. Reversing age-associated immunosenescence via exercise. Exercise Immunology Rev. 2004;10:6–41.

80. Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, et al. Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. JAMA. 1997; 277:1940–1944.

81. Cohen S, Doyle W J, Turner RB, et al. Emotional style and susceptibility to the common cold. Psychosomatic Med. 2003;65:652–657.

82. Nieman DC. Exercise, upper respiratory tract infection, and the immune system. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 1994;26:128–139.

83. Campbell H. Acute respiratory infection: A global challenge. Arch Dis Child. 1995;73:281–283.

84. Douglas RM. Respiratory tract infections as a public health challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:192–194.

85. Gross PA, Hermogenes AW, Sacks HS, Lau J, Levandowski RA. The efficacy of influenza vaccine in elderly persons. A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:518–527.

86. Goodwin K, Viboud C, Simonsen L. Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review. Vaccine. 2006;24:1159–1169.

87. Jia YH, Cammisuli S, Baggiolini M. Immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng CA Meyer in the mouse. Agents Actions. 1984;15:386–391.

88. Singh VK, Agarwal SS, Gupta BM. Immunomodulatory activity of Panax ginseng extract. Planta Medica. 1984;6:458–532.

89. Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardized ginseng extract G 115 for potentiating vaccination against common cold and/or influenza syndrome. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1996;22:65–72.