1. Still DW. Pomegranates: A botanical perspective. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:199–209.
2. Jayaprakasha GK, Negi PS, Jena BS. Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:167–183.
3. Langley P. Why a pomegranate? BMJ. 2000;321:1153–1154.
4. Tous J, Ferguson L. Mediterranean fruits. In: Janick J, ed. Progress in New Crops. Arlington, VA: ASHS Press;1996:416–430.
5. El-Nemr SE, Ismail IA, Ragab M. Chemical composition of juice and seeds of pomegranate fruit. Nahrung. 1990;34:601–606.
6. Chemical analysis of the polyphenolic compounds in POM Wonderful pomegranate juice—cumulative data from 2002–2007 (Based on in-house data and data from the University of Wisconsin [Madison] and Brunswick Labs, Norton, MA). Unpublished document provided by POM Wonderful, October 2007.
7. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, inventors. Pomegranate extracts and methods of using thereof. U.S. Patent 6,361,807 B1, September 21, 1999.
8. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, inventors. Methods of using pomegranate extracts for causing regression in lesions due to atherosclerosis in humans. U.S. Patent 6,641,850 B1, November 4, 2003.
9. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr. 2004;23:423–433.
10. Rosenblat M, Hayek T, Aviram M. Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption by diabetic patients on serum and macrophages. Atherosclerosis. 2006;187:363–371.
11. Sumer MD, Elliott-Eller M, Weidner G, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:810–814.
12. Aviram M, Dronfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis. 2001;158:195–198.
13. Forest CP, Padma-Nathan H, Liker HR. Efficacy and safety of pomegranate juice on improvement of erectile dysfunction in male patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. International J Impotence Res. 2007; advance online publication, June 14, 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901570.
14. Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, et al. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:4018–4026.
15. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Nutrition labeling of food. 21 CFR 101.9 (c)(2). April 1, 2006.
16. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Potassium and the Risk of High Blood Pressure and Stroke. Docket No. 00Q-1582.
17. Cemeroglu B, Artik N, Erbas S. Extraction and composition of pomegranate juice. Fluessiges Obst. 1992;59:335–340.
18. Narr Ben C, Ayed N, Metche M. Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel. Z lebensm Unters Forsch. 1996;203:374–8.
19. Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109:177–206.
20. Gil M, Garcia-Viguera C, Artes F, Tomas-Barberan F. Changes in pomegranate juice pigmentation during ripening. J Sci Food Agric. 1995;68:77–81.
21. Gil M, Tomas-Barberan F, Hess-Pierce B, et al. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:4581–4589.
22. Hernandez F, Melgarejo P, Tomas-Barberan FA, et al. Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate (Punica granatum) clones. Eur Food Res Tech. 1999;210:39–42.
23. Mavlyanov SM, Islambekov SY, Karimdzhanov AK, Ismailov AI. Polyphenols of pomegranate peels show marked anti-tumor and anti-viral action. Chem Nat Compounds. 1997;33:98–99.
24. Noda Y, Kaneyuki T, Mori A, Packer L. Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:166–171.
25. Rozenberg O, Shih DM, Aviram M. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) attenuates macrophage oxidative status: studies in PON1 transfected cells and in PON1 transgenic mice. Atherosclerosis. 2005;181:9–18.
26. Artik N, Cemeroglu B, Murakami H, et al. Determination of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice by HPLC. Fruit Processing. 1998;8:492–499.
27. Chauchan D, Chauhan J. Flavonoid diglycoside from Punica granatum. Pharm Biol. 2001;39:155–157.
28. Kim N, Mehta R, Yu W, et al. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;71:203–217.
29. van Elswijka D, Schobela U, Lansky E, et al. Rapid dereplication of estrogenic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using on-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry. Phytochem. 2004;65:233–241.
30. Plumb GW, de Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, et al. Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel. Redox Report. 2002;7:41–46.
31. Poyrazoglu E, Goekman V, Artik N. Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) grown in Turkey. J Food Composition Anal. 2002;15:567–575.
32. Melgarejo P, Salazar DM, Artes F. Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. Eur Food Res Technol. 2000;211:185–190.
33. Heftmann E, Ko S, Bennett RD. Identification of estrone in pomegranate seeds. Phytochem. 1966;5:1337–1339.
34. Dean DE, Goodwin TW. Steroid oestrogens in plants: re-estimation of oestrone in pomegranate seeds. Phytochem. 1971;10:2215–2216.
35. Moneam NMA, Sharaky AS, Badreldin MM. Estrogen content of pomagranate seeds. J Chromatogr. 1988;438:438–442.
36. Ahmed R, Ifzal SM, Saifuddin A, Nazeer M. Studies on Punica granatum. I. Isolation and identification of some constituents from the seeds of Punica granatum. Pakistan J Pharmaceut Sci. 1995;8:69–71.
37. Abd El Wahab SM, Fiki NMEI, Mostafa SF, et al. Characterization of certain steroid hormones in Punica granatum L. seeds. Bull Fac Pharm Cario Univ. 1998;36:11–16.
38. Choi D, Kim J, Choi S, et al. Identification of steroid hormones in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using HPLC and GC–mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 2006;96:562–571.
39. Wang RF, Xie WD, Zhang Z, et al. Bioactive compounds from the seeds of Punica granatum (pomegranate). J Nat Prod. 2004;67:2096–2098.
40. Ajaikumar KB, Fijesh PV, Simona PS, Jose Padikkala. F-3 Therapeutic efficacy of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) Indian J Med Res. 2005;(Suppl):123. 24th Annual Convention of IACR & International Symposium on “HPV and Cervical Cancer.”
41. Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Myhrstad MC, et al. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. J Nutr. 2002;132:461–471.
42. Kelawala NS, Ananthanarayan L. Antioxidant activity of selected foodstuffs. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004;55:511–516.
43. Kulkarni AP, Aradhya SM, Divakar S. Isolation and identification of a radical scavenging antioxidant -punicalagin from pith and carpellary membrane of pomegranate fruit. Food Chem. 2004;87:551–557.
44. Kulkarni AP, Mahal HS, Kapoor S, Aradhya SM. In vitro studies on the binding, antioxidant, and cytotoxic actions of punicalagin. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1491-1500.
45. Li Y, Guo C, Yang J, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chemistry. 2006;96:254–260.
46. Negi P, Jayaprakasha G. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. J Food Sci. 2003;68:1473–1477.
47. Reddy M, Gupta S, Jacob M, et al. Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L. Planta Med. 2007;73:461–467.
48. Ricci D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Fraternale D. Antioxidant activity of Punica granatum fruits. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:310–312.
49. Rosenblat M, Aviram M. Antioxidative properties of pomegranate: In vitro studies. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:31-43.
50. Rout S, Banerjee R. Free radical scavenging, anti-glycation and tyrosinase inhibition properties of a polysaccharide fraction isolated from the rind from Punica granatum. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:3159–3163.
51. Rozenberg O, Howell A, Aviram M. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it. Atherosclerosis 2006;188:68–76.
52. Schubert S, Lansky E, Neeman I. Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoid. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;66:11–17.
53. Seeram N, Adams L, Henning S, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:360–367.
54. Sestili P, Martinelli C, Ricci D, et al. Cytoprotective effect of preparations from various parts of Punica granatum L. fruits in oxidatively injured mammalian cells in comparison with their antioxidant capacity in cell free systems. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56:18–26.
55. Shiner M, Fuhrman B, Aviram M. Macrophage paraoxonase 2 (PON2) expression is up-regulated by pomegranate juice phenolic anti-oxidants via PPARgamma and AP-1 pathway activation. Atherosclerosis. 2007; Feb 9, [Epub ahead of print].
56. Azadroi M, Schulman R, Aviram M, Siroky M. Oxidative stress in artriogenic erectile dysfunction: Prophylactic role of antioxidants. J Urol. 2005;174:386–393.
57. Ignarro LJ, Byrns RE, Sumi D, et al. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15:93–102.
58. Xu J, Guo CJ, Yang JJ, et al. Intervention of antioxidant system function of aged rats by giving fruit juices with different antioxidant capacities. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;39:80–83.
59. Faria A, Monteiro R, Mateus N, et al. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice intake on hepatic oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46:271–278.
60. Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Punica granatum—potential antiperoxidative agents. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:181–186.
61. Murthy CKN, Jayaprakasha G, Singh P. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:4791–4795.
62. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1062–1076.
63. Cerdá B, Soto C, Albaladejo MD, et al. Pomegranate juice supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60:245–253.
64. Cerdá B, Espín JC, Parra S. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolized into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43:205–220.
65. Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, et al. Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8956–8961.
66. Aviram M. Review on human studies on oxidative damage and antioxidant protection related to cardiovascular diseases. Free Radic Res. 2000;33:S85–S97.
67. Berliner JA, Navab M, Fogelman AM, et al. Atherosclerosis: basic mechanisms: oxidation, inflammation and genetics. Circulation. 1995;9:2488–2496.
68. Reaven PD, Napoli C, Merat S, Witztum L. Lipoprotein modification and atherosclerosis in aging. Exp Gerontol. 1999;34:527–537.
69. Ross R. Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:115–126.
70. Rozenberg O, Rosenblat M, Coleman R, et al. Paraoxonase (PON1) deficiency is associated with increased macrophage oxidative stress: studies in PON1-knockout mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:774–784.
71. Fuhrman B, Oiknine J, Aviram M. Iron induces lipid peroxidation in cultured macrophages, increases their ability to oxidatively modify LDL, and affects their secretory properties. Atherosclerosis. 1994;111:65–78.
72. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Aviram M. Oxidative stress increases the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor and the cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in macrophages from atherosclerotic mice: protective role of antioxidants and of paraoxonase. Atherosclerosis. 2002;161:307–316.
73. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Michael Aviram. Pomegranate juice inhibits oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:570–576.
74. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Botti C, et al. Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein down regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15:259–263.
75. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Lerman L, et al. Beneficial effects of pomegranate juice on oxidation-sensitive genes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity at sites of perturbed shear stress. PNAS. 2005;102:4896–4901.
76. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Sica V, et al. Effects of a pomegranate fruit extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis. Cardiovas Res. 2007;73:414–423.
77. Getz GS, Reardon CA. Paraoxonase, a cardioprotective enzyme: continuing issues. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004;15:261–267.
78. Polagruto J, Schramm D, Wang-Polagruto J, et al. Effects of flavonoid-rich beverages on prostacyclin synthesis in humans and human aortic endothelial cells: Association with ex vivo platelet function. J Med Food. 2003;6:301–308.
79. de Nigris F, Balestrieri ML, Williams-Ignarro S, et al. The influence of pomegranate fruit extract in comparison to regular pomegranate juice and seed oil on nitric oxide and arterial function in obese Zucker rats. Nitric Oxide. 2007;17:50–54.
80. Rosenblat M, Draganov D, Watson C, et al. Mouse macrophage paraoxonase-2 activity is increased whereas cellular paraoxonase 3 activity is decreased under oxidative stress. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23;468–464.
81. Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A, et al. Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduce macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerois. J Nutr. 2001;131:2082–2089.
82. Loren D, Seeram N, Schulman R, Holtzman D. Maternal dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice is neuroprotective in an animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Pediatric Res. 2005;57:858–864.
83. Kwak HM, Jeon SY, Sohng BH, et al. Beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors from pomegranate (Punica granatum) husk. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:1328–1332.
84. Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger C, et al. Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-KB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:423–423.
85. Albrecht M, Jiang W, Kumi-Diaka J, et al. Pomegranate extracts potently suppress proliferation, xenograft growth, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells. J Med Food. 2004;7:274–283.
86. Adhami V, Mukhtar H. Polyphenols from green tea and pomegranate for prevention of prostate cancer. 2006; 1095–1104.
87. Jeune MAL, Kumi-Diaka J, Brown J. Anticancer activities of pomegranate extracts and genistein in human breast cancer cells. J Med Food. 2005;8:469–475.
88. Lansky EP, Mehta R. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture. Eur J Cancer Prevention. 2004;13:345–348.
89. Lansky EP, Harrison G, Froom P, Jiang WG. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) pure chemicals show possible synergistic inhibition of human PC-3 prostate cancer cell invasion across Matrigel. Invest New Drugs. 2005;23:121–122.
90. , . Differentiation-promoting activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. 2004;7:13–18.
91. Khan N, Hadi N, Afaq F, et al. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:163–173.
92. Khan N, Farrukh Afaq F, Kweon M, et al. Oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits growth and progression of primary lung tumors in mice. Cancer Research. 2007;67:3475–3482.
93. Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S, et al. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. PNAS. 2005;102:14813-14818.
94. Toi M, Bando H, Ramachandran C, et al. Preliminary studies on the anti-angiogenic potential of pomegranate fractions in vitro and in vivo. . 2003; 121–128.
95. Larrosa M, Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC. The dietary hydrolysable tannin punicalagin releases ellagic acid that induces apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells by using the mitochondrial pathway. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:611–625.
96. Chen PS, Li JH. Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006;163:44–53.
97. Afaq F, Syed D, Malik A, et al. Delphinidin, an anthocyanidin in pigmented fruits and vegetables, protects human HaCaT keratinocytes and mouse skin against UVB-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis. J Inv Dermatol. 2007;127:222–232.
98. Suzuki R, Noguchi R, Ota T, et al. Cytotoxic effect of conjugated trienoic fatty acids on mouse tumor and human monocytic leukemia cells. Lipids. 2001;36:477–482.
99. Hora JJ, Maydew ER, Lansky EP, Dwivedi C. Chemopreventive effects of pomegranate seed oil on skin tumor development in CD1 mice. J Med Food. 2003;6:157–161.
100. Shukla S, Gupta S. Molecular mechanisms for apigenin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of hormone refractory human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2004;39:114–126.
101. Tsuzuki T, Igarashi M, Miyazawa T. Conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibits transplanted tumor growth via membrane lipid peroxidation in nude mice. J Nutr. 2004;134:1162–1166.
102. Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, et al. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:980–985.
103. Prescott SM, Fitzpatrick FA. Cyclooxygenase-2 and carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1470:M69–M78.
104. Shishodia S, Adams L, Bhatt I, Aggarwal B. Anticancer potential of pomegranate. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:111.
105. Afaq F, Hafeez B, Syed DN, et al. Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. J Nutr. 2005;35:2096–2102.
106. Ajaikumar KB, Asheef M, Babu BH, Padikkala J. The inhibition of gastric mucosal injury by Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) methanolic extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:171–176.
107. Gharzouli K, Khennouf S, Amira S, Gharzouli A. Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Phytother Res. 1999;13:42–45.
108. Khennouf S, Gharzouli K, Amira S, Gharzouli A. Effects of Quercus ilex and Punica granatum polyphenols against ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Pharmazie. 1999;54:75–76.
109. Seeram N, Aronson W, Zhang Y, et al. Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived metabolites inhibit prostate cancer growth and localize to the mouse prostate gland. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7732–7737.
110. Maru I, Ohnishi J, Yamaguchi S, et al. An estrogen-like activity in pomegranate juice. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi 2001;48:146–9.
111. Harris DM, Besselink E, Seeram N. Assessment of estrogenicity of pomegranate in an in vitro bioassay. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:143–155.
112. Sharaf A, Nigm S. The oestrogenic activity of pomegranate seed oil. J Endocrinol. 1964;29:91–92.
113. Mori-Okamoto J, Otawara-HamamotoY, Yamato H, Yoshimura H. Pomegranate extract improves a depressive state and bone properties in menopausal syndrome model ovariectomized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:93–101.
114. Warren MP, Ng E, Russalind HR, Halpert S. Absence of significant estrogenic effects in the postmenopausal population. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:157–166.
115. Lei F, Xing DM, Xiang L, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of ellagic acid in rat after oral administration of pomegranate leaf extract. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003;796:189-194.
116. Doyle B, Griffiths LA. The metabolism of ellagic acid in the rat. Xenobiotica. 1980;10:247–256.
117. Cerdá B, Llorach R, Cerón JJ, et al. Evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism in the rat of punicalagin, an antioxidant polyphenol from pomegranate juice. Eur J Nutr. 2003;42:18–28.
118. Cerdá B, Cerón JJ, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC. Repeated oral administration of high doses of the pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to rats for 37 days is not toxic. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3493–501.
119. Seeram NP, Lee R, Heber D. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;348:63–68.
120. Seeram N, Henning S, Zhang Y, et al. Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours. J Nutr. 2006;136:2481–2485.
121. Igea JM, Cuesta J, Cuevas M, et al. Adverse reaction to pomegranate ingestion. Allergy. 1991;46:472–474.
122. Valcecchi R, Reseghetti A, Leghissa P, et al. Immediate contact hypersentivity to pomegranate. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;38:44–45.
123. Gaig P, Bartolomé B, Lieonart R, et al. Allergy to pomegranate (Punica granatum). Allergy. 1999;54:287–288.
124. Kim H, Yoon YJ, Shon JH, et al. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity. Drug Metabolism Disposition. 2006;34:521–523.
125. Sorokin AV, Duncan B, Panetta R, Thompson PD. Rhabdomyolysis associated with pomegranate juice consumption. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:705–706.
126. Hidaka M, Okumura M, Fujita K, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metabolism Disposition. 2005;33:644–648.
127. Nagata M, Hidaka M, Sekiya H, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome P450 2C9 and tolbutamide pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metabolism Disposition. 2007;35:302–305.
128. Farkas D, Oleson LE, Zhao Y, et al. Pomegranate juice does not impair clearance of oral or intravenous midazolam, a probe for cytochrome P450-3A activity: Comparison with grapefruit juice. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;47:286–294.