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The preparation and publication of this literature review and monograph on this proprietary botanical food product has been conducted by the American Botanical Council (ABC) for educational purposes only. This publication reflects the state of the scientific and clinical literature on this specific commercial plant-based product up to a reasonable period of time prior to the initial publication (and/or any subsequent revisions). This publication has been peer reviewed for its accuracy by experts qualified in their formal training to assess the literature in various scientific disciplines related to the information included in this document.

This publication should not be interpreted as a promotion or endorsement by the authors or ABC regarding the specific ingredient, any product containing the ingredient, or the commercial companies affiliated with their manufacture, importation, marketing, or sale. ABC has long recognized that the pharmacological and clinical literature on specific categories of herbs and other botanically-derived ingredients used in conventional foods, dietary supplements, and/or medicinal preparations are often based on one or several leading proprietary commercial nutritional or phytomedicinal preparations. This publication reflects and acknowledges the existence of such literature as having been conducted on one or more leading products in a particular category.

The American Botanical Council is an independent, nonprofit research and education organization, tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Service code, dedicated to the rational and responsible use of herbs, phytomedicines, teas, and related plant-based ingredients.