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Scientific Name:
Xylopia aromatica, X. aethiopica
Family Name:
Common Name:
Ethiopian pepper, fruta de burro
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Administration of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanolic (XAE) xylopic acid (XA) was shown to exhibit anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain rats with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Ameyaw 2014
Pretreatment with xylopic acid significantly reduced signs of inflammation, including neutrophil infiltration, edema, and alveoli septal thickening, in carrageenan-treated mice lung tissue, as well as decreased lipid peroxidation while increasing of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. Ekuadzi 2018
Xylopia aethiopica fruit acetone fraction was shown to significantly and dose-dependently ameliorate oxidative stress-associated metabolic complications in type 2 diabetes rats. Mohammed 2017
A study on the effect of Xylopia Aethiopica ethanolic extract from seeds or pods on testicular function of adult male rats showed a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone and sperm count; anti-infertiity effects were associated with compounds in the seeds. Abarikwu 2017
Administration of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous leaf extract for 25 days was shown to improve recovery process of P-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, improving islet morphology, revealing more intense staining for insulin, and increasing immuno-labelled surface area. Ofusori 2016
Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract was shown to exhibit dose-dependent antidepressant-like activity in mice largely due to effects on 5-HT neurotransmission with a possible glutamatergic effect via the glycineB co-binding site and nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Biney 2016
Oral administration for four weeks of Xylopia aethiopica fruit acetone fraction was shown to reverse biochemical and pathological changes to near normal levels in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes rats. Mohammed 2016
Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract and xylopic acid were shown to dose-dependently ameliorate both acute muscle and skeletal hyperalgesia induced by 3% carrageenan in rats. Woode 2016
Xylopia aethiopica dried fruit aqueous ethanol extract was shown to suppresses joint inflammation and destruction in Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, significantly reducing hind paw edema in the ipsilateral paw both prophylactically and therapeutically. Obiri 2014
A study on the effects of Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed an 82% decrease in blood glucose after the 10th to 40th hr, as well as amelioration of diabetes complications. Okpashi 2014
Oral administration of Xylopia aethiopica extract dose-dependently suppressed systemic anaphylactic shock protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice, as well as inhibited pinnal inflammation and suppressed clonidine-induced catalepsy and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Obiri 2013
Xylopic acid was shown to exert significant effects on Plasmodium berghei infection in mice similar to artemether/lumefantrine and to reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats similar to prednisolone. Boampong 2013
Oral administration of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract and xylopic acid was shown to result in analgesic activity in chemical, mechanical, and thermal-induced rat pain models without inducing tolerance to respective anti-nociceptive effects after chronic administration. Woode 2012
Oral administration of Xylopia aethiopica dried fruit extract was shown to protect Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation by increasing the antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney. Adaramoye 2011
Xylopia aethiopica seed extract was shown to reduce the composition of lipids and produce a favorable lipid profile in the serum and postmitochondrial fractions of visceral organs in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nwozo 2011
Oral administration of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous fruit extract was shown toincrease ileal gut fluid uptake and enhance glucose uptake in rats, which may be beneficial in diarrhea. Okwari 2010
Xylopia aethiopica fruit methanol extract was shown to ameliorate gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rat brains. Adaramoye 2010
Administration of Xylopia aethiopica was shown to reverse gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats bu inhibiting oxidative damage. Adaramoye 2010
The cardiovascular effects induced by labdane-302, a diterpene isolated from stems of Xylopia langs-dorffianna in male Wistar rats revealed that labdane-302 causes hypotension through peripheral vasodilation, mediated in part by NO & PGI2 & by blockade of Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels. de Oliveira 2006
DL50 of the total alkaloids of the roots of Xylopia quintasii is 850 mg/kg per os in the mice. Papaverine like (antispasmodic) properties are described. [Article in French] Quevauviller 1976
History of Record
February 2008
MAJOR REVISION BY: J Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
April 2018
April 2018