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Scientific Name:
Xylopia aromatica, X. aethiopica
Family Name:
Common Name:
Ethiopian pepper, fruta de burro
Evidence of Activity
Analytical Chemistry
An investigation of Xylopia aethiopica leaves harvested in six Ivoirian forests using GC-FID and (13) C-NMR analyses identified monoterpene hydrocarbons β-pinene (up to 61.1%) and α-pinene (up to 18.6%), and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D (up to 28.7%), as the dominant components. Yapi 2012
An investigation of Xylopia aethiopica root oil by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques revealed 27 total components, including three novel natural compounds with two dimethyl-vinyl-cyclohexene isomers. Root oil composition differed drastically from leaf and fruit oils. Yapi 2012
2 new ent-trachylobane diterpenes were isolated from stems of Xylopia langsdorffiana ent-7alpha-acetoxy-trachyloban-18-oic acid & ent- 7alpha-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid. Their structures were deduced by spectroscopy & confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxic activity was investigated. Tavares 2006
The isoquinoline alkaloids, 10,11- dihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxynoraporphine & parvinine were isolated, along with 39 known alkaloids from secondary & tertiary alkaloidal fractions of root & bark of Xylopia parviflora & their structures determined on the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data. Nishiyama 2006
Analysis of volatile secondary metabolites from fruits of Colombian Xylopia aromatica (Lamarck) by different extraction and headspace methods and gas Chromatography yielded beta-phellandrene, beta-myrcene, p-mentha-1(7),8-diene, alpha-phellandrene, and p-cymene. Stashenko 2004
From quaternary alkaloidal fraction of the bark & root of Xylopia parviflora, 4 isoquinoline alkaloids, xylopinidine, dehydrocoreximine, N, N-dimethylanomurine N-methylphoebine were isolated along with 17 other known compounds & their structures determined based on spectroscopy. Nishiyama 2004
The essential oils obtained from Xylopia aethiopica showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons with beta-Pinene while trans-m-mentha-1(7),8-diene was the main compound. Their antioxidant activity was investigated & found to be significant in scavenging superoxide anion radical. Karioti 2004
From the leaves of Xylopia vielana (Annonaceae) two dimeric guaianes named vielanins D and E were isolated and structurally elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopy. Due to a hemiketal function at C-8' both compounds occurred as epimeric mixtures. Kamperdick 2003
Derivatives of ent-17,19-dihydroxy-16betaH-kaurane(EDBK) were synthesized by biotransformation with Verticillium lecanii by incubating with EDBK, obtained by hydroboration/ oxidation of kaurenoic acid, product of Xylopia, in mineral liquid medium for 48h, yielding 3 new compounds. Vieira 2002
To find alternative sources for kaurenoic acid, the content of kaurane diterpenes was evaluated in Xylopia aromatica and X. brasiliensis, species occurring in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais in Brazil, and also in X. frutescens applying a reversed phase HPLC isocratic method. de Melo 2001
From the leaves of Xylopia vielana (Annonaceae) the 3 dimeric guaianes vielanin A-C were isolated and structurally elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopy as 1-3. The structure of 1 contains a bridged ring system and Compounds 2 and 3 represent symmetric cyclobutanes. Kamperdick 2001
Chemical composition and mineral constituents of Xylopia aethiopica are characterized, along with the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oil. Barminas 1999
Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of dried fruits of the West African pepper tree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo, revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 4-8192. Tairu 1999
Characterization and applications of oils extracted from Canerium schweinfurttii, Vitex doniana and Xylopia aethiopica fruits/seeds. Ajiwe 1998
A new trachylobane derivative identified as 7alpha-hydroxy-trachyloban-19beta-oic acid was isolated from the bark of Xylopia aethiopica and its structure elucidated by various NMR techniques and molecular modeling. Ngouela 1998
Influence of fruit conservation methods on the essential oil composition of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard from Benin. Ayedoun 1996
Five species analysed, common to Niger, west Africa exhibited high mineral values, specifically, Adansonia digitata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cerathoteca sesamoides, Sclerocarya birrea & Xylopia sp. The latter was high in zinc hence recommended during pregnancy and lactation. Smith 1996
Asimicin and a new cytotoxic Annonaceous acetogenin [1], venezenin, were isolated from the bark of Xylopia aromatica by bioactivity-directed fractionation using lethality to brine shrimp. Compound 1 represents an unusual type of C37 Annonaceous acetogenin. Colman-Saizarbitoria 1995
Kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes from Xylopia aethiopica. Harrigan 1994b
The oxoaporphine alkaloids oxophoebine and liriodenine were isolated from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae). Both showed selective toxicity against DNA repair and recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Harrigan 1994
Annonaceous acetogenins were isolated from the EtOH extract of bark of Xylopia aromatica by bioactivity-directed fractionation using lethality to brine shrimp. These acetogenins are xylopianin, xylopiacin & xylomaticin, which are the new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring type acetogenins. Colman-Saizarbitoria 1994
[Chemical and biological studies of Xylopia aromatica stem bark and leaf oils.] Fournier 1994
[Volatile Constituents of Xylopia nitida Leaf Oil1] Fournier 1993
Xylopia aethiopica is one of 18 wild under-utilized crop-seeds were investigated for their tannin, phytin and oxalate (antinutritional) contents. Balogun 1988
[Further Diterpenes from Stem Bark of Xylopia aethiopica1.] Faulkner 1985
[Alkaloids of Annonaceae: alkaloids of Xylopia pancheri (author's transl)][Article in French] Niéto 1976
[Studies in aporphine alkaloids. 3. Isolation and synthesis of alkaloids of Xylopia brasiliensis St. Hil.] [Article in Undetermined Language] Casagrande 1970
[Identification of Surinam Xylopia varieties by quantitative microscopy.][Article in Undetermined Language] Parabirsing 1952
History of Record
February 2008
MAJOR REVISION BY: J Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
April 2018
April 2018