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Scientific Name:
Harpagophytum procumbens, H. zeyheri
Family Name:
Pedaliaceae
Common Name:
devil's claw, grapple plant, wood spider
Evidence of Activity
Analytical Chemistry
Determined macro- and microelements in medicinal plants including Cynara scolymus, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Maytenus ilifolia using sequential optical emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after acid digestion, assisted by microwave radiation. de Aragão Tannus 2020
Characterized the chemical profile of a commercial spagyric tincture of Harpagophytum procumbens root. Results indicated that the product has good stability and biological activity at least for the 4 years from the production to the expiration date. Avato 2019
Determined harpagoside and the wide phenolic pattern in Harpagophytum procumbens root and its commercial food supplements using innovative (micro)extraction techniques. All commercial samples respected the European Pharmacopoeia monograph, showing a harpagoside content ≥ 1.2%. Diuzheva 2017
Harpagophytum taxa were biochemically very variable and the response in suppressing respiratory burst (in terms of reactive oxygen species produced by human neutrophils when challenged) differed. Muzila 2016
A new iridoid diglucoside has been isolated from an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens secondary roots, together with six known compounds. Its structure has been assigned as 6'-O-glucopyranosyl-8-O-trans-coumaroylharpagide by spectroscopic means. Tomassini 2015
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed significant variation in harpagoside content: H. procumbens (0.17-4.37%); H. zeyheri (0.00-3.07%). Only 41% of the H. procumbens samples & 17% of the H. zeyheri samples met the pharmacopoeial specification of ⩾1.2%. Mncwangi 2014
Among 11 herbal preparations used in rheumatic diseases, the highest content of kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found in peppermint, nettle, birch leaf and the horsetail herb. The lowest content of KYNA was found in willow bark, dandelion root and in the extract from the root of Harpagophytum. Zgrajka 2013
A simple GC-MS method identified lower quantities of triterpenic acids in dried extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens root. Caligiani 2013
A simple, rapid, and accurate HPLC method was successfully applied to quantify the bioactive iridoid in an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens and in its related phytomedicine "harpagophyton". Babili 2012
Two methods based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to an electrospray ionization interface were developed for the determination of constituents in the tinctures (60%, v/v, DER 1:5) of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens L.). Karioti 2011
A new triterpenoid glycoside named harproside & a new iridoid glycoside, named pagide, along with 6 known triterpenoids, were obtained from tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens & their structures were established through chemical methods & spectroscopic analyses. Qi 2010
Solid-phase extraction cartridges among those usually used for screening in horse doping analyses are tested to optimize the extraction of harpagoside (HS), harpagide (HG), and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide (8PCHG) from plasma and urine. Colas 2008
The development of two HPTLC methods enabling the determination of harpagoside in Harpagophyti radix and of salicin in Salicis cortex was reported. The methods allow the analyses of up to 16 samples in parallel demonstrating the proposed methods as very rapid and cost efficient. Wagner 2008
A method which involves liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis and characterization in equine urine and plasma of iridoid glycosides of Harpagophytum, a plant with antiinflammatory properties. Colas 2006
The HPLC-SPE-NMR technique, supported by HPLC-MS measurements, was used to determine structures of major as well as some minor constituents of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) roots. Clarkson 2006
Iridoid glycosides, harprocumbide A (6''-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylharpagoside & harprocumbide B (6''-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-procumbide were isolated from the tubers of Harpagophytum prucumbens D.C., along with nine known iridoid glycosides including harpagoside & harpagide. Qi 2006
A method, based on an immuno affinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase HPLC separation & fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in herbs of senna pods, devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) & ginger roots. Arranz 2006
Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of roots of Harpagophytum procumbens were investigated for high anti-inflammatory activity, with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. Gunther 2006
The HPLC-SPE-NMR experiments with crude extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens allowed rapid identification of novel, unstable chinane-type tricyclic diterpenes (1 and 2), along with numerous other constituents. Clarkson 2006
The identification and quantification of harpagoside in secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens as well as in related phytopharmaceutical products, e.g., ethanolic extracts and tablets have been carried out by means of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy. Baranska 2005
LC-DAD-MS monitored fractionation of a Harpagophytum procumbens DC. root extract combined with a hyphenated LC-DAD-MS/SPE-NMR technique, allowed the characterization of isobaric iridoid glycoside regioisomers. Seger 2005
An existing HPLC method for the determination of the iridoid glycoside harpagoside in Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) was successfully transferred from a conventional particle-based C18 silica column to a monolithic silica column. Schmidt 2005
The trace elements in eight hypoglycemiant plants including Harpagophytum procumbens were determined using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Zucchi 2005
Comparison between HPLC and HPTLC-densitometry for the determination of harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens CO(2)-extracts did not show any statistically significant differences. Gunther 2005b
Rapid quantification of the iridoids and harpagoside (HS) contents of Harpagophytum procumbens root and the effect of drying conditions on HS retention were investigated. Joubert 2005
Super- & subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict extractability of hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions & simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens. Gunther 2005a
[Addendum to the ESCOP monograph on Harpagophytum procumbens.] Chrubasik 2004
Ten compounds including harpagoside, 8-p-coumaroylharpagide were isolated from the storage roots of Harpagophytum procumbens, structures were elucidated using spectroscopic data and they showed in vitro inhibition of human leukocyte elastase. Boje 2003
Two acetyl phenolic glycosides including 6-acetylacteoside, were obtained from commercially available secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens and were identified using spectroscopic methods. Munkombwe 2003
Investigation among preparations containing extracts of turmeric, artichoke, devil's claw and garlic or salmon oil, revealed that the devil's claw extract was particularly rich in water-soluble antioxidants. Harpagoside a compound in devil's claw, did not contribute to its antioxidant activity. Betancor-Fernandez 2003
Chemical conversion of a commercial extract of harpagophytum procumbens led to the isolation of two new pyridine monoterpene alkaloids named beatrine A and B. The structures were established using ESIMS and 2D NMR. Baghdikian 1999b
To achieve high quality homeopathic products, improved analytical techniques for the homeopathic raw materials have been developed. Example is HPLC method for Harpagophytum procumbens O = D1. Marotta 1998
A method for TLC identification of the Devil Claw Extract and its tablets were set up and a quantitative analysis of harpagoside, the main active constituent in the extract was made. [Article in Chinese] Qian 1998
The iridoids of Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri were studied by CLHP and the aqueous extracts of both drugs show similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Baghdikian 1997
[HPLC analysis of a drug in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens DC. I] [Article in Italian] Ficarra 1986
[Further components from radix Harpagophytum procumbens DC] [Article in German] Tunmann 1975
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: J. Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
June 2006
MAJOR REVISION BY: Eli Scheinman, MES
January 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Oren Rabinowitz, MSc
October 2021