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Scientific Name:
Ficus carica
Family Name:
Moraceae
Common Name:
fig
Evidence of Activity
Pharmacodynamics
Morin, a flavonoid present in Ficus carica, exhibited dose-dependent anti-cancer stem cell potency in colon cancer cells by binding to pumilio-1 protein and attenuating CD133 and pumilio-1 expression. Gor 2022
Ficus carica leaf extract rich in phenolics and flavonoids, including Rutin, Psoralen, Bergapten, and Caffeoylmalic acid, exhibited potent reducing and radical scavenging activity, dose-dependent pro-proliferative effects, supported the stemness state and did not influence the expression of Mvh, Oct-4, and GFRα1 genes in mice spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. Makoolati 2022
Ficus carica leaf extracts collected in autumn with higher concentrations of malic acid and furanocoumarins than extracts collected in spring exhibited significant decreases in lipid content of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro by downregulating adipogenesis transcription and insulin sensitivity via significant attenuation of PPARγ, leptin, adiponectin, and GLUT4 expression. Pucci 2022
Ficus carica leaf extract, administered in isolate or in combination with olive leaf extract, exhibited a protective effect against cryptosporidiosis in mice by reducing oocyst shedding, reducing intestinal histopathological changes, improving serum antioxidants and improving hepatic and renal functions. El-Hamed, 2021
Ficus carica latex exhibited an antiproliferative, genotoxic, anti-metastatic, and cytotoxic activity against triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via downregulating ERK2, CREB, and AKT2. AlGhalban 2021
Ficus carica cell suspension culture extract reduced transepidermal water loss, sebum production, desquamation, and pallor due to acute stress in human skin and keratinocytes. Dini 2021
The collagenolytic activity of a serine protease in the latex of Ficus carica was evaluated. The isolated serine protease degraded denatured collagen and bovine serum albumin. Nishimura 2021
The chloroform fraction of Ficus carica extract exhibited an apoptotic effect against HepG2 and NIH liver cancer cell lines, respectively. Lupeol acetate and lupeol palmitate were detected in the fraction. Administration of the fraction at the highest dose in mice did not exhibit adverse effects. Jeivad 2020
Ficus carica extract suppressed denervation-induced inflammation and attenuated muscle atrophy by enhancing PPARα expression and inhibiting NF-κB activation in atrophic biceps muscle and normal sternocleidomastoid muscle samples obtained from four brachial plexus injury patients. Dai 2020
Blackberries, fresh figs (Ficus carica), and prickly pears harvested from Kabylia, Algeria, were sources of lactic acid bacteria shown to grown under conditions mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. The studied strains were devoid of adverse effects and exhibited hypocholesteromia effect in vitro. Barache 2020
Peel, pulp, leaves, whole fruit and latex extracts of Ficus carica exerted significant antiproliferative effects on HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cells after 48 hours of treatment. Leaves and latex extracts had the strong effect. Various extracts induced apoptosis in both types of cells. Soltana 2019
Both methanol and water extracts of Ficus carica leaf demonstrated strong a-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibition activity, while the water extract showed stronger inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ergül 2019
Co-treatment of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells with DES and Ficus carica tree extract attenuated DES-induced DNA strand breaks, suggesting a potential mechanism for cancer chemoprevention. Lightbourn 2019
In vitro study showed that fig latex inhibits properties that are associated with HPV-positive cervical cancer transformed cells such as rapid growth and invasion and substantially downregulated the expression of p16 and HPV onco-proteins E6, E7. Ghanbari 2019
A systematic phytochemical study on Ficus carica fruits isolated 4 new prenylated isoflavone derivatives, which displayed remarkable inhibitory effects against nitric oxide production comparable to hydrocortisone, as well as antiproliferative activities against diverse human cancer cells in vitro. Liu 2019
Ficus carica leaf and fruit methanolic extracts each exerted high antioxidant activity, but when tested for anticancer activity, the leaf extracts exerted stronger apoptosis and necrosis in Huh7it cells compared to fruit extracts. Purnamasari 2019
In human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-23, treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract increased expression of genes that promote apoptosis, increased portion of cells at S phase, and decreased cell mobility. Findings suggest F. carica may show potential for treating triple-negative breast cancers. Zhang 2018
The addition of Ficus carica to a smoothie containing pomegranate juice increases the anthocyanins content and may result in the increase in nutrition and functionality values of the beverage. Cano-Lamadrid 2018
In vitro testing showed Ficus carica extract has antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis, one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment, with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50%, and was not cytotoxic to fibroblast cells. Niwana 2018
Molecular chemoprevention of morin, a flavonoid from Ficus carica, in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats, targets NF-κB and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic agent for colon cancer prevention. Sharma 2018
In vitro screening of sequential extracts of fruit, leaves, and stembark of Ficus carica for antioxidative, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic activities revealed the ethanolic fruit extract to have the highest activity in all three parameters. Mopuri 2018
Gene expression analysis in human keratinocyte cells showed Ficus carica leaf extract downregulated VEGF, TNF-a, IL-1a, and SRD5A2 compared to the untreated cells, suggesting it may benefit some inflammatory disorders and androgen-dependent disorders of the skin such as androgenetic alopecia. Turkoglu 2017
Evaluation of the activity of ingredients of a medicinal thread composed of Ficus carica latex, Capsicum annuum tincture (CAT), Achyranthes fauriei Kshara and powdered Curcuma longa rhizome used in Ayurvedic medicine for anal fistula for the purpose of improving the formula. Yokogawa 2017
During screening of 29 edible herbal extract against the norovirus surrogates murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), Ficus carica extract significantly inhibited FCV, and thus may have the potential to control human noroviruses without cytotoxicity. Seo 2017
In vitro screening of methanol extracts of Turkish plants, including Ficus carica, for antimicrobial activity against biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ficus carica was not noted for significant activity. Nostro 2016
During screening of Ficus carica fruit methanolic extract fractions, n-butanol soluble fraction showed antiacetylcholinesterase activity, ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed anti-butrylcholinesterase activity and antilipoxygenase activity was shown by ethyl acetate soluble fraction. Ahmad 2016
Characterization of the composition of the oil extract from achenes of Ficus carica cv. Kholi from Tunisia. Linolenic acid was the predominant fatty acid and Δ(5,23)-stigmastadienol the predominant phytosterol. Antioxidant capacity investigated. Soltana 2016
Ficus carica latex (FCL) causes cell death in glioblastoma multiforme cells, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with temozolomide. FCL modulates let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect. Tezcan 2015
Crude plant extracts of Ficus carica and Perilla frutescens tested against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 showed quorum sensing inhibition activity, with the dichloromethane extract showing the most pronounced activity of the F. carica extracts tested. Sun 2014
Ethanolic Ficus carica extract dose dependently inhibited the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and decreased mRNA expression levels of VEGF-A and Integrin β3 in HUVECs. Finding suggest the extract contains anti-angiogenic activities. Ghambarali 2014
Ficus carica polysaccharidesare able to activate and maturate dendritic cells, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells. This leads to enhanced T cell responses, and induces both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. Tian 2014
Use of Ficus carica fiber based activated carbon as a potential adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from an aqueous system. Gupta 2013
Screening of leaves, bark, and wood of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the leaves demonstrated the best antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity against C32 human melanoma cells. Coumarins, psoralen, bergapten, fatty acids, polyphenols, and flavonoid content varied among plant parts. Conforti 2012
Latex from the fruit of Ficus carica cv. Dotatto showed higher antiradical activity while latex obtained from the leaves had the best antiproliferative activity on the human melanoma cell line A375. Menichini 2012
Assay of the hexane extract of the common Jrani Tunisian caprifig (Ficus carica) for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion. A strong bactericidal effect was demonstrated, especially against Staphylococcus saprophyticus clinical isolate, and S. aureus ATCC 25923, with a MIC of 19 µg/mL. Lazreg-Aref 2012
Validation of traditional claims of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica leaves. Ali 2012
27 plants used in folk medicine practices in Karachi, Pakistan were tested against clinical isolates. Methanolic Ficus carica extract inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes but not Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ali 2011
The latex and different extracts of Ficus carica reduced the viability of HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro at concentrations as low as 2 µg/mL, in a dose dependent manner. Khodarahmi 2011
Fig tree latex (Ficus carica) inhibited proliferation of a stomach cancer cell line without any cytotoxic effect on human normal cells in vitro. Hashemi 2011
In vitro screening of 5 extracts of Ficus carica fruit latex against herpes simplex type 1, echovirus type 11, and adenovirus revealed the hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1), without cytotoxic effect on Vero cells. Lazreg Aref 2011
The latex of Ficus carica has a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 10.2 μg/ml and an LC(90) value of 42.3 μg/ml. The LC(50) value of latex constituents 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were 9.4 and 56.3 μg/ml, respectively. Chung 2011
In rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride, methanol extracts of Ficus carica and Morus alba showed potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Singab 2010
Cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside inhibited lipid peroxidation from producing peroxy radicals and MDA, and showed a strong chelating activity toward the Fe(2+) ion. Pretreatment with C3R inhibited proapoptotic processes initiated by the oxidation of lysosome membranes in fibroblast cells. Solomon 2010
Screening of methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex for in vitro antimicrobial activity against 5 bacteria species and 7 strains of fungi. Aref 2010
Results of evaluation of the free radical scavenging potential of cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside (C3R), the major anthocyanin in fresh fig fruits, using several free radical generators suggest C3R is a potent scavenger and may influence the endogenous antioxidant system of the consumers of the fruit. Solomon 2010
The hexane-soluble fraction of Ficus carica is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Ficus may benefit bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption. Park 2009
In vitro assays of the antioxidative activities of water extract and crude hot-water soluble polysaccharide from Ficus carica fruit. Yang 2009
Screening of active compounds from a variety of plants, including Ficus carica latex, show in vivo antitumor activities and may offer new medicinal drug prospects. Amara 2008
Extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their combination decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. [Article in Russian] Agabeĭli 2005
An in vitro study showed the water extract from the leaves of Ficus carica possessed a distinct anti-Herpes simplex virus-1 effect in Hep-2, BHK21 and PRK cells. Wang 2004
Ficus carica decreased the frequency of spontaneous and gamma-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in the meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice. Agabeĭli 2004
Results from the testing of ficin derived from Ficus carica on human blood coagulation suggest the hemostatic potency of Ficus proteases is based on activation of human coagulation factor X. Richter 2002
A mixture of 6-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-beta-sitosterols, the acyl moeity being primarily palmitoyl and linoleyl with minor amounts of stearyl and oleyl, has been isolated as a potent cytotoxic agent from fig (Ficuscarica) latex and soybeans. Rubnov 2001
Studies on proteinases from Ficus carica var. Horaishi. VI. Immunochemical comparison of ficins A, B, C, D and S. [No abstract] Sugiura 1975
[Studies on proteinases from Ficus carica var. Horaishi. II. Physicochemical properties of ficin A,B,C and D]. [Article in Japanese][No abstract] Sugiura 1973
[Proteinases of Ficus carica var. Horaishi. 4. Kininase action of ficin A, B, C and D]. [Article in Japanese] [No abstract] Sugiura 1973
[Studies on proteinases from Ficus carica var. Horaishi. I. Purification and enzymatic properties of proteinases]. [Article in Japanese] [No abstract] Sugiura 1971
The latex of Ficus carica had the second highest specific proteolytic activity of the 46 Ficus species examined. The latices of 16 varieties of F. carica were all different as determined by free boundary electrophoresis although the specific proteolytic activity of the latices was fairly constant. Williams 1968
[PROTEOLYTIC PROPERTIES OF THE LATEX FROM THE FIG TREE (FICUS CARICA Z.)] [Article in Russian] [No abstract] Gonashvili 1964
FICUS ENZYMES. II. PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES FROM THE LATEX OF FICUS CARICA VARIETY KADOTA. [No abstract] Kramer 1964
The inhibitory and necrosis-inducing effects of the latex of Ficus carica L. on transplanted and spontaneous tumours. [No abstract] Ullman 1952
Effect of antibiotics on the milk-clotting enzymes of Carica papaya and Ficus carica. [No abstract] Raghunandana Rao 1948
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Selena Rowan
August 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Antonia Kaz
December 2022