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Scientific Name:
Ficus carica
Family Name:
Moraceae
Common Name:
fig
Other Information
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
Variations in morphology and pomology, including ripening time, fruit skin ground color, and fruit-related traits, of 49 wild edible Ficus carica (fig) accession samples were predominantly linked to 10 independent components in two major gene clusters from principle component analysis. Khadivi 2022
Charred branches of Ficus carica were identified and dated to c.a. 7000 years ago at the remains of an ancient village in the Jordan Valley in northern Israel. Langgut 2022
Zinc, magnesium, and epicatechin were more abundant in Ficus carica fruit following moderate salt stress compared to non-stressed plants. Francini 2021
Tetraploidization in two Ficus carica cultivars was successfully established. Tetraploid cultivars exhibited taller stems, larger leaves, increased chloroplasts, higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthesis rate, increased growth phytohormones, less accumulated growth inhibitor phytohormones, and a higher content of phenolic compounds, total soluble sugars, and total soluble proteins, but exhibited less total antioxidant activity. Abdolinejad 2021
Ficus carica hardwood cuttings propagated in peat and perlite exhibited highest root and stem biomass compared to other cutting types and propagation medium. Shamsuddin 2021
Purification and characterization of a serine protease (FPIII) with fibrinolytic activity from Ficus carica latex and study of the anticoagulant character of the latex. Hamed 2020
Identification of viruses associated with fig mosaic disease in Palestinian common fig (Ficus carica) orchards. Jamous 2020
Major anthocyanins were found in higher quantities in exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) or ethephon treated fruit than in ABA inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid or fluridone-treated fruit. Expression-levels of anthocyanin-biosynthesis genes were upregulated by ABA. Lama 2020
Pollination is partially responsible tissue-specific organic acid metabolism in fig fruit. Notably, pollination increased citric acid content significantly in both inflorescence and receptacle. Lama 2019
Evaluation of a natural convection solar dryer for small-farm level use in processing figs. Noutfia 2018
Gibberellin (GA)-induced parthenocarpy in fig is co-modulated by the female flowers and receptacle, and repression of abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis and GA catabolism might be the main forces deflecting abscission and producing fig parthenocarpy. Chai 2018
Ficus carica was evaluated as high performing pollution-tolerant tree species with relatively high dust capturing potential that can be integrated into plantation drives in western Himalaya for environmental management. Kashyap 2018
Comparative proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses on latexes isolated from immature fruit, young petioles and lignified trunks of F. carica after constructing a unigene sequence library using RNA-seq data, for the determination of the diversity of latex-based strategies in Ficus carica. Kitajima 2018
First report of the occurrence of fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici, on Ficus carica in Ontario, Canada. Morphological and molecular analysis of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts conformed to published descriptions for this species. Sun 2017
Optimization of a reliable protocol for elminating Fig cryptic virus and Fig milde-mottle-associated virus from accessions of 4 local Ficus carica varieties in Tunisia using in vitro culture achieved sanitation rates ranging from 70-90%. Bayoudh 2017
In Ficus carica rooted cuttings infected with Fig leaf mottle-associated virus-1, individual treatments with ginger roots and turmeric rhizomes in pre-grafting experiments and Thuja extract following Harmal seeds in post grafting experiments were efficient against symptom development. Aldhebiani 2017
The application of treatments such as passive modified atmospheres (MAP) or the combination of MAP with aqueous soy polyphenolic antimicrobial extract is highly effective to control fruit spoilage in the main and breba crops of Ficus carica. Villalobos 2017
Results of a study on Ficus carica fruit suggest ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in abscisic acid production between pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruit might be the key to their different ripening characteristics. Rosianski 2016
The bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy) in common fig (Ficus carica) plantations. Faccoli 2016
Ficus carica was revealed to be a new host for Panonychus citri and P. hadzhibejliae during a survey of Panonychus undertaken across Georgia from 2005-2014. Arabuli 2016
Chlorophyll degradation was differentially regulated in pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruits, leading to earlier chlorophyll degradation in parthenocarpic fruits. Rosianskey 2016
5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content, and reduced leaf superoxide anion production rate and malonaldehyde content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. An 2016
Field surveys over 2 years in Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland identified non-crop plants use as hosts by Drosophila suzukii, an invasive fruit fly of Asian origin known to be a major pest in a wide variety of fruit crops in Europe, including Ficus carica. Kenis 2016
Evaluation of the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the stability of three fig cultivars during cold storage and distribution. This method was found to minimize weight loss and delay pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Villalobos 2016
The liquid co-products (FLC) generated by the fig processing industry obtained from the peel and pulp of two fig varieties were characterized and compositionally profiled to set standards for its applications as a potential ingredient in food products. Viuda-Martos 2015
Ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Freiman 2015
The fruits of four plant found wild in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, contain polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins, and are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. Shad 2014
Determination of the susceptibility of common riparian wetland plants, including Ficus carica, to perfluorooctanoic acid accumulation. The highest bioconcentration factor was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. Mudumbi 2014
Characterization of the phenolic compounds in 9 fresh figs (Ficus carica cv. Dottato) from Cilento (Italy) and 10 dried fig samples from Cilento, Turkey, and Greece. 1st crop were richer in phenolics than figs of the 2nd crop. The Turkish samples were highest in phenolic compounds among dried figs. Russo 2014
Characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) found in Ficus carica. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. Chiumenti 2014
Pollination is essential in Ficus carica fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds may play a hormonal role stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation. Trad 2014
Study of the propagation of 6 Ficus carica cultivars in SE of Tunisia by using hardwood cuttings under field conditions. Variability in responses of cuttings among the five cultivars was observed, especially in percent root emergence and cumulative growth of young plant. Aljane 2014
Investigation of leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica cv. Dottato collected in different months revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, as well as differing antiradical, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and antiproliferative activities. Marrelli 2014
Fig trees thus differ from many species in their reproductive growth characteristics. Isolation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene from fig and examination of its function, characteristics, and expression patterns. Results suggest that FcFT1 activation is regulated by light conditions. Ikegami 2013
Morphological characterization and DNA analysis of Mexican fig (Ficus carica) landraces indicated the Black Mission cultivar introduced by the Spanish adapted to local environmental condition in Central Mexico, yielding at least 6 clearly distinct landraces. García-Ruiz 2013
Mulberries and figs (Ficus carica) can serve as hosts for Drosophila suzukii, an agricultural pest with a wide host range) and female flies will respond to their odors. Fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. Yu 2013
Organoleptic evaluation of sensory profiles of the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. Haug 2013
Conduction of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms analysis verified existence of variability due to epigenetic DNA methylation among select fig (Ficus carica) mutants that originated from gamma-irradiated buds. Rodrigues 2013
Determination of ficins' autolysis by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. Zare 2013
Organoleptic testing of 12 fig cultivars by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. King 2012
A review detailing the current understanding of Emaravirus, a genus of multipartite negative strand RNA plant viruses that include Fig mosaic virus. Mielke-Ehret 2012
Analysis of intersexual chemical mimicry in the dioecious Ficus carica. Scents of summer male figs resemble those of the co-flowering females, and are different from those of the same male trees in spring, when female figs are absent. This may explain why the rewardless females are still pollinated. Soler 2012
Ficus carica is among fruit trees most frequently damaged by competition with invasive weed Ephedra alte in Jordanian orchards. Qasem 2012
Screening of natural compound, myristicin, and a synthetic inhibtor of CP450, piperonyl butoxide, for synergistic effects in combination with 3 insecticides, for the control of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, a major pest of Ficus carica. Niu 2012
In Ficus carica cv. Dottato from Italy, fruits of the June harvest showed high furanocoumarin and pyranocoumarin content, while the September harvest showed the highest polyphenolic content. Specific constituent contents and biological activities were compared. Marrelli 2012
A field study of eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees, including Ficus carica, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Seven new records of eriophyoid mite species were collected from four species of fruit crops. Al-Atawi 2011
Determination of the natural occurrence of fusarium derived fumonisin B1 and B2 in dried Ficus carica fruit from 12 locations in the Meander Valley area of the Aegean region. Kosoglu 2011
Sequencing of dsRNA segments of Fig cryptic virus, detected in fig orchards of six Mediterranean countries where it does not seem to induce a visible disease. Elbeaino 2011
Ficus carica fruit was not an effective bait for Aedes albopictus in field conditions. Müller 2011
Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies on Ceratocystis fimbriata, a complex of many species that infect woody plants including Ficus carica, to evaluate genetic variation and varying susceptibility in native host plants vs exotic host plants in Brazil. Harrington 2011
Investigation of morphological and physiological characteristics involved in leaf development in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions. Observations indicated that Ficus is well adapted to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. González-Rodríguez 2010
Development of a system of micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis of Ficus carica to conserve fig cultivation in Egypt, where orchards have been threatened by pathogen infections. Soliman 2010
Studies in Morocco show traditional agroecosystems constitute active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated species, even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. Wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these systems. Achtak 2010
The consistent association of double membrane bodies (DMBs) with mosaic symptoms and the results of molecular investigations strongly indicate that DMBs are particles of fig mosaic virus, the etiological agent of fig mosaic disease. Elbeaino 2009
Determination of the complete sequence of 4 viral RNA segments of fig mosaic virus. Based on molecular, morphological and epidemiological features, FMV appears to be very closely related to European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus and pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus. Elbeaino 2009
Characterization of a new species of Phytophthora, proposed as P. parsiana, isolated from woody plants including pistachio, almond, and fig (Ficus carica). Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa 2008
Dipping second crop fig (Ficus carica) fruit in a hot water solution of sodium carbonate reduced post harvest decay more effectively than cold water treatments. Molinu 2006
Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms responsible for oil, auxin, and propylene induced ethylene production in figs. Multiple ethylene regulatory pathways are involved during maturation and ripening in figs and each specific pathway depends on the inducer/stimulus. Owino 2006
Experiments with various Generally Recognized As Safe Compounds (GRAS) for extending postharvest life of fresh fig fruits, including sodium carbonate solutions and acetic acid vapors. Venditti 2005
The ant Crematogaster scutellaris is a predator of the exclusive pollinator of Ficus carica, the wasp Blastophaga psenes. Testing revealed these ants achieve their high predation rate by detecting the odor of pollinating wasps alone or in association with male figs as they release wasps. Schatz 2003
Report of the dieback of Albizia lebbeck and infection of Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum at Sultan Qaboos University campus in Oman. Elshafie 2002
Over the course of the growing season, 7.6-16.4% of the carbon assimilated by the leaves and figs of male specimens of Ficus carica was invested in reproduction, with the majority allocated to pollinator sheltering (fig construction and respiration). Grison-Pigé 2001
Survey results from 35 US states on crop losses, including fig, in response to phytoparasitic nematodes. Koenning 1999
Description of the spread of endosepsis in calimyrna fig (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna) orchards in California from 1989-1995. A 3-year study in three commercial orchards showed there is no secondary spread of fig endosepsis in the field. In Calimyrna figs it is considered a monocyclic disease. Michailides 1998
The fruiting phenology of Ficus carica, which stabilizes the symbiosis between it and the mutualistic wasp (Blastophaga psenes) it depends on for pollination, is the result of short-term selective pressures on the male function of the tree. Kjellberg 1987
Psoralen and bergapten are the primary photoactive compounds in Ficus carica, and are present in the leaf and shoot sap but not the fruit or its sap. Their levels are higher in spring and summer, explaining increased incidence of fig dermatitis during that time. Zaynoun 1984
The ecotoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index causes the root tip cells of Ficus carica root to transform into terminal galls with a layer of necroctic cells. Wyss 1980
Sex differences and flowering phenology in the common fig, Ficus carica L. [No abstract] Valdeyron 1979
The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Puech 1976
Ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening. It inhibits fruit growth in phase A, the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B, and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B. Marei 1971
In the King cultivar of fig, the first crop is parthenocarpic. The second crop requires fertilization. Auxin concentrations were higher in the first crop, and gibberellin concentrations higher in the second. High concentrations of gibberellins coincided with low ones of auxins, and vice versa. Lodhi 1969
Results of this study support the hypothesis that, with the possible exception of 1 component, the multiple molecular forms of ficin are not the result of artifacts produced by autolysis during collection, storage and purification of the sample. Kramer 1969
Parthenocarpic fig fruits induced with a kinin were identical morphologically to those previously produced with auxin or gibberellin. The three types of endogenous hormones thought to originate in the seeds and to stimulate directly fruit growth can be supplied by plant parts other than seeds. Crane 1965
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Selena Rowan
August 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Antonia Kaz
December 2022