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Scientific Name:
Ficus carica
Family Name:
Moraceae
Common Name:
fig
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Ficus carica extracts improved fertility parameters, including spermatogenesis, folliculogenesis, and hormone profiles, and antioxidant activity in male and female rat reproductive organs. Ain 2022
Intravenous administration of Ficus carica combined with Olea europaea reduced necrosis, inflammatory markers, and cytochrome C expression levels in the hepatocytes of a mouse model of hepatitis. Ilyas 2022
A Ficus carica hexane leaf extract containing high concentrations of flavonoids and phenolics significantly reduced sodium benzoate-induced increases in oxidative stress biomarkers in the serum and damage to the liver and kidney by improving antioxidant defense and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, in rats. Yassien 2022
A Ficus carica extract treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels in a rat nickel toxicity model. Nemiche 2022
A mixture of Ficus carica and Olea europaea leaf extracts exhibited a hepatoprotective effect against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats comparable to liraglutide. Alalwani 2022
Ficus carica fruit extract exhibited a protective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced testicular injury in albino mice. Ahmad 2022
Ficus carica fruit extract exhibited an anti-tumor effect against xenografted pancreatic cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing autophagy in mice without toxicity on normal cells. Ou 2022
Ficus carica leaf extract exhibited a synergistic antiparasitic effect with praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mouse intestine and liver by reducing parasite egg load. El-Morsy 2022
Oral administration of the methanolic extract of Ficus caria leaves exhibied a protective effect against streptozotocin induced-diabetes in rats by reducing fasting glucose, serum lipid profile, and kidney and liver enzyme levels better than L. meyenii seed extract and P. granatum leaf extract. Ramadan 2021
Oral administration of Ficus carica fruit seed oil exhibited a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion induced acute mesenteric ischemic injury in rats, possibly via modulation of inflammation and antioxidant activity. Orak 2021
A gel formulated with Ficus carica latex did not improve lesion size, recovery, or control of cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by Leishmania major in mice. Pouryousef 2021
Ficus carica fruit extract exhibited an antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin- and high fat diet-induced diabetes in mice by reducing body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol, TG, LDL, and VLDL, while increasing antioxidant status and HDL in a dose-dependent manner. This activity was compared to the seed extract of Sizigium cumini. Arafa 2020
Cotreatment with Ficus carica (fig) extract and extra virgin olive oil along with chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) modulated the toxic effect of 5-FU on the heart and kidney of rats (n=40). Elghareeb 2020
5 week orally administered Ficus carica polysaccharide (150-300 mg per kg bw) significantly prevented DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice by improving the colon length and suppressing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the gut. Zou 2020
Ficus carica leaf tea suppressed degranulation in rat basophil cell line RBL-2H3 sensitized by IgE antibodies. IgE bound to the cell surface was liberated in the medium depending on the treatment time with fig tea. Oral fig tea inhibited allergic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis in mice. Abe 2020
Ficus carica leaf extract improved pancreatic tissue injury in type 1 diabetic mice and reduced the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins. It inhibited MIN6 cell apoptosis induced by palmitic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of AMPK/JNK/caspase-3 signaling pathway was involved. Zhang 2019
In male albino rats subjected to full body gamma radiation, pre-administration of Ficus carica offered a modulatory protective and anti-apoptotic role against cells damaged by free radicals. Fouad 2019
In rats with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract in a gold nanoparticle carrier improved renal functions, efficiently scavenging ROS and reducing AKI severity. El-Sayed 2019
In rats subjected to vincristine-induced neuropathic pain, morin from Ficus carica fruit suppressed pain by protecting the sciatic nerve and inhibiting inflammation through NF-?B pathway. Jiang 2019
Ficus carica methanol extract (Fc) and its oligosaccharide rich fraction (OFG) reduced strychnine-induced convulsion action and prevented strychinine-lethality in mice. Raafat 2018
In a rat model of breast cancer, intratumoral injection of Ficus carica fruit latex decreased tumor size, and restored hematological and histological factors to that of the control. Ghandehari 2018
In diabetic mice, administration of Ficus carica leaf extract twice a day for 6 weeks inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of AMPK and down-regulation of gluconeogenic enzymes. Zhang 2018
In male rats administered lead acetate, subsequent treatment with Ficus carica did not lead to a statistically significant amelioration of the lead-induced disruption of basement membranes in the seminiferous tubules. Asad 2018
6-week old male albino mice orally treated with Ficus carica extract demonstrated enhanced neuromuscular co-ordination during sone behavioral tests compared to control. Ashfaq 2018
In rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and loperamide induced constipation, Ficus carica aqueous extract exhibited a laxative effect without provoking diarrhea by accelerating GI transit and gastric emptying. Rtibi 2018
Novel herbal formula NHE-06, a water-decocting extract from Ficus carica, Taraxacum mongolicum, Angelica sinensis, Lonicera japonica, Pseudo-ginseng and Folium ginkgo, restores antitumor immunosurveillance by suppressing NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 signaling in vitro and in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lu 2018
In rats exposed to doxorubicin (DOX), treatment with the aqueous extracts of Cydonia oblonga fruit and Ficus carica fruit offered beneficial effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, mediated by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Gholami 2017
Treatment with the leaves extracts of Ficus carica improved lipid profile and reduced blood glucose level as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content in alloxan-induce diabetic rats. The antioxidant enzymes activity in the liver and heart tissues was also increased. Belguith-Hadriche 2017
The ethyl acetate extract of Ficus carica leaves exerted significant effect on carbohydrate metabolism enzymes with promising hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in type 2 diabetic rats. Immumohistochemical studies of islets substantiated the cytoprotective effect on pancreatic β-cells. Stephen Irudayaraj 2017
1g/kg of the aqueous-methanolic extract of Ficus carica fruit decreased blood pressure significantly in normotensive and glucose-induced hypertensive rats. The extract produced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects but it failed to block the stimulatory effect of both adrenaline and CaCl2. Alamgeer 2017
Ficusin lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, body weight gain, serum antioxidant enzymes and lipids, and enhanced PPARγ expression and improved translocation and activation of GLUT4 in adipose tissue, improving insulin sensitivity in HFD-STZ induced diabetic rats. Irudayaraj 2016
In rats exposed to ethanol-induced oxidative stress, coadministration of dried fig (Ficus carica) inhibited hepatotoxicity by inhibiting the production of free radicals, and resulted in almost normal histologic findings of liver in the treatment group compared to ethanol group. Turan 2016
In mice exposed to formaldehyde, treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and gonadosomatic index, and reduced occurrence of seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest. Naghdi 2016
Treatment with Fucus carica leaf extract concurrently with gentamicin exposure prevented functional and structural changes in the kidneys of adult albino mice. Ghaffar 2015
In rats with inflammation induced by injection of carrageenen into airpouches, Ficus carica leaf extract demonstrated antiangiogenesis effects. It ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF. Eteraf-Oskouei 2015
Ficus carica leaf extract decreased the severity of ischemia/reperfusion-induced injuries in rat hearts ex vivo, likely due to antioxidant capacity and the existence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Allahyari 2014
In mice exposed to agents affecting CNS function, Ficus carica extract exerted a CNS depressive effect and modulated norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptaminethe levels. It delayed onset and prolongation of ketamine-induced sleep, increased muscle relaxation, reduced anxiety, and moderated seizures. Bhanushali 2014
Supplementation with Ficus carica along with a high fat diet (HFD) significantly improved the lipid profile and decreased adipogenic risk factors in HFD-rats, most likely mediated through an increase in HDL-C levels. Joerin 2014
Ficus carica leaf ethanolic extract showed significant inhibitory activity against castor-oil induced diarrhea and PGE2-induced enteropooling in rats. Patil 2012
Pretreatment with Ficus carica stem extract significantly protected rats from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. Saoudi 2012
In rats with loperamide-induced constipation, supplementation with fig fruit decreased constipation and improved histological parameters such as thickness and musin areas in the distal colon. Lee 2012
In a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein and movement restriction, administration of fig paste significantly reduced constipation, increasing fecal quantity and reducing segmental colonic transit time. Oh 2011
In albino rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride, the ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited significant hepatoprotection in a dose dependent manner, comparable to the effect of silymarin. Mujeeb 2011
In mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride, pre-treatment with Ficus carica ethanol extract enhanced protection against hepatic damage, lowering liver marker enzyme levels and reducing destruction of liver architecture, with no fibrosis and moderate inflammation compared to CCl4 treated control. Aghel 2011
An oral toxicity study examining several plants determined an LD50 for the dry aqueous leaf extract of Ficus carica in Swiss albino mice of 3.36 +/- 0.26 via the Thompson method and 4.00 +/- 0.04 via the Finley method. Awobajo 2009
Ex vivo testing of rabbit jejunum revealed spasmolytic activity in the ripe dried fruit of Ficus carica, possibly mediated through the activation of K(+)(ATP) channels. Treatment in ex vivo model of human platelets showed antiplatelet activity. Gilani 2008
In rats exposed to rifampicin, a petroleum ether extract of shade dried Ficus carica leaves significantly reversed biochemical, histological and functional changes, indicating promising hepatoprotective activity. Gond 2008
In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, administration of either the chloroform fraction or the basic fraction of Ficus carica extract tended to normalize the altered antioxidant status, including fatty acids and plasma vitamin E values. Pèrez 2003
Administration of Ficus carica leaf aqueous extract decreased plasma glucose in rats with streptozotocin-induce diabetes but not in normal rats. Such an effect cannot be mediated by an enhanced insulin secretion, so an as yet undefined insulin-like peripheral effect, may be suggested. Pérez 2000
The latex of Ficus carica, administered in doses of 3ml/kg/day for three consecutive days, was effective in the removal of Syphacia obvelata but not Aspiculuris tetraptera and Vampirolepis nana from naturally infected mice. de Amorin 1999
In a rat model of hypertriglyceridaemia, administration of a Ficus carica leaf decoction lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Results indicate the presence of a compound(s) that influence lipid catabolism. Pérez 1999
Trials of the effect on dog Ascaris in vivo produced by the latex of Ficus carica and Papaya carica growing in Cairo gardens. [No abstract] Nagaty 1959
The effects of the fraction R3 of the latex of ficus carica L. on the tissues of mice bearing spontaneous mammary tumors. [No abstract] Ullman 1952
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Selena Rowan
August 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Antonia Kaz
December 2022