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Scientific Name:
Ficus carica
Family Name:
Moraceae
Common Name:
fig
Evidence of Activity
Analytical Chemistry
Polyphenolic fractions of Ficus carica fruit peel from twelve different cultivars in Tuscany exhibited variable chemical contents with greater rutin and 5-caffeoylquinic acid in greenish fig peels and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in dark-violet fig peels. Calani 2022
The higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Algerian Ficus carica (fig) azendjar variety compared to the taamriouth variety contributed to its enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. Kebal 2022
Mid-infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance correction was coupled with partial least square regression to predict and discriminate phenolic acids and flavonoids from Ficus carica fruit peel and pulp identified with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Hssaini 2022
The color, peel weight, size, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity maturity index, sugar, and phenolic content of the breba fruits of four Spanish Ficus carica varieties were evaluated and compared. Núñez-Gómez 2021
The antioxidant capacity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of Ficus carica leaves were evaluated. 3-O-(rhamnopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl)-7-O-(glucopyranosyl)-quercetin, isoschaftoside, and rutin in the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Li 2021
Microwave-assisted ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium-catalyzed deglycosylation of psoralenoside to psoralen was applied to increase extraction yield of psoralen from Ficus carica leaves. Zhao 2021
The total carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and phenolic compounds responsible for flavor and fragrance in bagged female flower tissues of Ficus carica were evaluated via HPLC MS/MS and RNA-sequencing untargeted metabolomics. Wang 2021
The volatile organic compounds from the unripe, ripe, and fully ripe fruits of the Taamriwthe, Azegzaw, and Averkane Ficus carica cultivars were compared. Zidi 2021
β-bourbonene, a sesquiterpene from Ficus carica, exhibited high predicted binding affinity to cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, topoisomerase-I, topoisomerase-II, B-cell lymphoma 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 drug targets in molecular docking simulations. Parameters such as root mean square deviation and predicted radius of gyration in the binding pocket are discussed. Gurung 2021
High-pressure liquid chromatography tandem vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the relationships between metabolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and fruit peel color, and cultivar in Ficus carica fresh fruits. Cultivar type had no effect on metabolic profile & antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. Hssaini 2021
The chromatic coordinates, phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity of the fruit peel and pulp of 25 Moroccan Ficus carica cultivars were evaluated and compared. Hssaini 2021
The aqueous methanolic extract of Ficus carica seeds exhibited the highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents as well as he highest antioxidant capacity, as well as the highest content of chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, and syringic acid compared to five other polar solvent extracts. Nakilcioğlu-Taş 2021
Comparison of the physicochemical and sensory properties of nine fig (Ficus carica) cultivars at three ripening stages. Pereira 2020
A case study exploring the the potential for extraction of bud-derivative polyphenols from two different manufacturing procesess, two extraction protocols, and eight species including Ficus carica. Turrini 2020
A comprehensive overview of the phenolic compounds' composition and their impact on human health from typical Mediterranean plants including Ficus carica L. Miklavcic Višnjevec 2020
Determination of the effects of fruit maturity on the physiological quality and targeted metabolites of 'Masui Dauphine' figs (Ficus carica) in two maturation stages (75% vs. 100% commercial maturity) during cold storage. Byeon 2020
Investigation of the volatile composition by HS-SPME and the sensory profile by descriptive sensory analysis of novel smoothies prepared by blending fig (Ficus carica), jujube or quince purée with pomegranate juices at two ratios purée:juice (40:60 or 60:40). Issa-Issa 2020
Determination of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica latex from 18 cultivars. Shahinuzzaman 2020
Evaluation of the differential accumulation of caretenoids and volatile apocarotenoids during the development of pollinated versus parthenocarpic fig fruits. Nawade 2020
Advanced characterization of the chemical composition and bioactivities of the peel and pulp of Portuguese fig variety "Pingo de Mel". Palmeira 2019
Optimization of ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction of pectin from Ficus carica fig skin. Characterization revealed low-methoxyl pectin with high lightness, and bioactivity testing demonstrated strong antioxidant and cytotoxic inhibitory actions against HepG2 and A549 cells. Gharibzahedi 2019
A study comparing different methods for extraction of pectin from common fig skin and the differences in chemical structure and monosaccharide composition of the extracted pectin. Gharibzahedi 2019
Screening of Olea europaea and Ficus carica leaf extract for total phenolic and flavanoid contents and evaluation of their free radical scavenging and Ferric reducing power. Results suggest a strong correlation between antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ayoub 2019
Investigation of the difference in proteomic and transcriptomic traits between commercial-ripe and tree-ripe Ficus carica figs. Cui 2019
Coating breba figs from Ficus carica cv. "Dottato", with a mucilage extract from Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes improved post-harvest quality, mitigated the decrease of most of the amino acid content during cold storage, and increased the amount of carbohydrates and other key metabolites. Allegra 2018
Comparison of the efficacy of different extraction techniques (heat, ultrasound, and microwave) in extracting anthocyanin pigments from the peel of Ficus carica fruit. Backes 2018
Evaluation of the variation in polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and levels of different pigments in Ficus carica leaves at four stages of maturation. Nadeem 2018
Characterization and in vitro testing of a novel polysaccharide (FCPW80-2) isolated from Ficus carica revealed MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways participated in FCPW80-2-induced macrophage activation. Study suggests that FCPW80-2 could be developed as a potential immunomodulating functional food. Du 2018
Characterization of non-anthocyanic flavonoids in 4 Tunisian smyrna-type varieties of Ficus carica (Kholi, Tchich Asal, Himri, and Bidhi) using LC/high-resolution mass spectrometry UHPLC-QqTOF. Identification of 22 compounds belonging to the classes of flavanones, flavones, and flavonols. Soltana 2018
Validation of Quantitative Structure Property Relationship modeling to relate metal ions characteristics with adsorption potential of Ficus carica leaves for 13 selected metal ions (Ca+2, Cr+3, Co+2, Cu+2, Cd+2, K+1, Mg+2, Mn+2, Na+1, Ni+2, Pb+2, Zn+2, and Fe+2). Batool 2018
Identification of the mineral locations in the soft tissues, the relative distributions of the minerals, and mineral volume contents using microcomputed tomography among Ficus species, including F. carica. Pierantoni 2018
Determination of the phenylpropanoid content in the leaves of 37 cultivars of Ficus carica. Caffeoylmalic acid, rutin, isoschaftoside were dominant polyphenols. Some cultivars that contained large amount of polyphenols and a small amount or no furanocoumarins were found. Takahashi 2017
Characterization of free and conjugate phenolic acids in the fruits of wild plants including olive, jujube, and common fig using GC-MS. 10 phenolic acids were identified in wild common fig fruit. Ahmad 2016
RP-HPTLC was found to be a more accurate, precise, and sensitive method of analyzing rutin content than NP-HPTLC in five different species of Ficus, including F. carica. AlAjmi 2015
Characterization of the phenolic composition of the leaves, fruits, skins and pulps of Ficus carica cultivars 'Temri' and 'Soltani'. The leaves of both varieties and the skin of 'Soltani' presented richer qualitative profiles than other plant parts tested. Ammar 2015
Purification and characterization of a novel ficin form, ficin E, from Ficus carica latex, as confirmed by peptide mass fingerprint analysis, specific amidase activity, SDS-PAGE and PAGE electrophoretic mobility, N-terminal sequencing and unproneness to thiol pegylation. Baeyens-Volant 2015
X-ray analysis of ten different crystal forms of purified cystein proteases (ficin) from Ficus carica latex. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. Haesaerts 2015
Identification of nine new tirucallane-type triterpenoids, ficutirucins A-I (1-9), from Ficus carica fruit. Compounds 1-3, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 11.67-45.61 µM against one or more of the three human cancer cell lines tested. Jing 2015
Analytical screening to estimate phenolic contents and antioxidant properities of plants identified as high use value in ethnobotanical surveys in Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Abbasi 2015
Comparison of three extraction methods, SPME, SD and SE, for the extraction of the volatile components of Ficus carica fruit. Analysis by GC-MS. [Article in Chinese] Cai 2014
Identification of phenylpropanoids Ficus carica leaves. Polyphenol caffeoylmalic acid and psoralic acid glucoside were identified for the first time, along with known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid and furanocoumarins psoralen and bergapten. Takahashi 2014
Purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from latex of Ficus carica cv. Brown Turkey by two step chromatographic procedure. Raskovic 2014
Isolation and characterization of 1-Cyclo-hexyl-6,7-dimeth-oxy-1,4-di-hydro-naphthalene from the leaf extract of Ficus carica. Chen 2014
Optimization 3 variables involved in the extraction of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from fresh dark fig (Ficus carica) using response surface methodology. Optimal extraction parameters were 63.48% acetone, 115.14 min, and 48.66 °C. Bachir Bey 2014
Evaluation of the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, Citrullara, and San Francesco. Dried figs are a source of compounds that demonstrated potential neuroprotection and antioxidant effects. Loizzo 2014
Quantification of linear furanocoumarins in the wood and bark of stems from 8 Algerian varieties of fig (Ficus carica) showed psoralen and bergapten concentrations were higher in the wood than in the stem bark. Dark fruited fig trees appear to produce these two coumarins more than green fruit trees. Rouaiguia-Bouakkaz
Isolation of 2 new furanocoumarins, 5-(1",1"-dimethylallyl)-8-methyl psoralen (1) and 2"-O-acetyl oxypeucedanin hydrate-3"-methyl ether (2), from the root heartwood of Ficus carica. Jain 2013
Characterization of the aromatic profile of volatiles in dried Ficus carica varieties Bružetka Bijela and Zimnica by headspace solid-phase (HS-SPME) procedure with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Mujić 2012
Analysis of calcium crystals in 54 plant species in salinized habitats in Tianjin, including Ficus carica. F. carica was the only of 38 calcium crystal containing species in which the cystolith of calcium carbonate crystal occurred. Xu 2012
Genotype is the main factor that determines difference in the composition of bioactive compounds in figs (Ficus carica), as determined by analysis of a number of local and well known genotypes and cultivars in NE Tureky. Ercisli 2012
Use of atomic absorption spectrometry to determine lead, cadmium, and copper concentration in the soil and leaves of plants, including Ficus carica, located within the vicinity of a lead-battery factory in Gaziantep, Turkey. Gokce 2012
Characterization of the amylolytic activity of Ficus carica (Kahli and Bidhi cultivars) crude latex. Analysis of amylolytic reaction products by TLC and HPLC suggested that Kahli amylase was an amyloglucosidase and Bidhi amylase was β-fructose, α(1-4) glucose. Aref 2011
Determination of the effect of processing and between drying methods on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic acids in figs (Ficus carica). The best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after sun-drying; oven-drying yielded the highest content of phenolics. Slatnar 2011
Determination of trace element content by ICP-OES after dry, wet, and microwave digestion method in dried fruit samples, including Ficus carica. Altundag 2011
Quantification of psoralen and daidzein in Ficus carica leaf by HPTLC. Ali 2011
Development of a strategy to fractionate and purify five ficin forms using SP-Sepharose Fast Flow column and a specific and reversible monomethoxypolyethylene glycol reagent. Characterization via de novo peptide sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Azarkan 2011
A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs recovered in Zaragoza in a vessel covered by a layer of orpiment and gypsum revealed that degradative reactions took place, especially of unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, triterpenes, saccharide, and lipid components. Ribechini 2011
Screening of Ficus carica leaf extracts showed the n-hexane and acetone extracts notably inhibited both acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, but had low activity in antioxidant tests. The choloroform extract was richest in total flavonoid content, while the n-butanol extract was highest in phenol. Orhan 2011
Performance of a targeted metabolite analysis in Ficus carica latex revealed the presence of a wide diversity of compounds from distinct classes with potent pharmacological activities, including phytosterols, fatty acids, and amino acids. Oliveira 2010
Metabolite profiling on Ficus carica latex determined composition of volatile compounds by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS. Sesquiterpenes constituted 91% of total identified compounds. Of 34 compounds identified, 5 were aldehydes, 7 alcohols, 1 ketone, 9 monoterpenes, 9 sesquiterpenes and 3 other compounds. Oliveira 2010
Isolation and purification of psoralen and bergapten from Ficus carica leaves. Identification by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and MS. Chunyan 2009
Quantification of 24 major, minor, and trace elements in figs (Ficus carica) and other dried fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Figs are an ample source of calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese. Toxic elements are below tolerance limits. Waheed 2009
Investigation of the effect of pH on the conformational behavior of ficin, from Ficus carica. Devaraj 2009
Metabolite profiling and biological screening performed on the leaves, pulps, and peels of 2 Portuguese white varieties of Ficus carica. Leaves presented the highest antioxidant potential. No acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity or antimicrobial potential was observed. Olveira 2009
Purification and characterization of ficin from Ficus carica using SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography. Devaraj 2008
Development and optimization of a rapid column HPLC-photodiode array method for separation and identification of phenols and furocoumarins. Application and validation in Ficus carica bark and other species. Govindarajan 2008
Determination and analysis of the total flavonoid content of hydroethanolic leaf extracts from Ficus carica, Ceratonia siliqua, and Pistachia lentiscus using HPLC, UV/VIS array, and ESI-mass spectrometry. Quercitin and luteolin were found to be the major flavonoids in Ficus carica. Vaya 2006
Analysis of the total polyphenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, and amount and profile of anthocyanins in six commercial fig (Ficus carica) varieties differing in color. Extracts of darker varieties showed higher contents of phytochemicals compared to lighter colored varieties. Solomon 2006
Comparison of sea sand disruption method, matrix solid phase disruption and solid-liquid extraction for extraction of phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible and less expensive. Teixeira 2006
Two triterpenes from the leaves of Ficus carica. [No abstract] Ahmed 1988
HPLC analysis of coumarinic compounds of fig leaves (Ficus carica) identified the presence of furocoumarins psoralen, bergapten and the coumarins umbelliferone, 4',5'-dihydropsoralen and marmesin. Concentrations and ratios of these compounds vary seasonally. Innocenti 1982
Studies on proteinases from Ficus carica var. Horaishi. V. Purification and properties of a sugar-containing proteinase (ficin S). [No abstract] Sugiura 1974
Furocoumarins in Ficus carica. [No abstract] Damjanić 1974
Studies on proteinases from Ficus carica var. Horaishi. 3. Stability of ficin A, B, C and D. [Article in Japanese] [No abstract] Sugiura 1973
Papain- and ficin-catalyzed reactions. Effect of pH on activity and conformation of ficin. [No abstract] Whitaker 1969
Ficin component c can be formed from component D under the experimental conditions used during purification of Ficus carica variety Kadota latex. Kramer 1969
Constituents of the leaves of Ficus carica, L. II. Isolation of a psi-taraxasteryl ester, rutin, and a new steroid sapogenin. [No abstract] el-Kholy 1966
Research on the content of psoralen and bergaptene in the leaves of Ficus carica. [No abstract] Rodighiero 1959
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Selena Rowan
August 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Antonia Kaz
December 2022