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Scientific Name:
Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Common Name:
echinacea
Evidence of Activity
Pharmacodynamics
Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 propagation of variants of concern and the entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoparticles. When added to epithelial cells, it significantly reduced sequential infection with SARS-CoV-2 (Hu-1) and OC43. Vimalanathan 2022
All Echinacea purpurea flower, leaf, and root extracts reduced pro-inflammatory mediators and had more robust anti-inflammatory activity than clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, diclofenac, salicylic acid, and celecoxib) with dichloromethanolic extracts demonstrating the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. Vieira 2022
Alanine, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, as well as tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan biosynthesis, are regulatory pathways for Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides, with the cross-cooperation network greatly influencing microbiota, metabolites, metabolism, and enhancing beneficial gut bacteria proliferation. Liu 2022
Polyphenolic polysaccharides from Echinacea purpurea flowers accelerated the efficacy of phagocytosis, significantly stimulated inflammatory cytokines, and released free radicals and anti-inflammatory interleukin. Paulovičová 2022
Network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro studies showed echinacoside to have various mechanisms of action against endometrial cancer which were related to antioxidation, apoptosis, and binding with EGFR, AKT1, ESR1, CASP3, HSP90AA1, and MMP9 via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Shu 2022
An herbal mouthwash containing Echinacea purpurea exhibited significant antimicrobial effect on cariogenic bacteria and Candida albicans, Yazdanian 2022
Although Echinacea purpurea and Matricaria chamomilla extracts and essential oils did not have significant effects on the inhibition of oral bacteria biofilm formation, Salvia officinalis, Lippie citriodora and Mentha piperita did. Fathi 2021
Although further studies are needed, researchers suggest Echinacea, particularly E purpurea, may be an antiviral agent useful in COVID-19 by modulating virus entry, internalization, and replication. Their hypothesis is that numerous bioactive agents in the plant may exert polypharmacological actions in regulating immune-inflammatory axis in COVID-19. Nagoor 2021
Anti-RSV activities of chicoric acid from echinacea purpurea in vitro. [No abstract] Zhang 2021
In a screening of 16 herbal extracts, an aqueous extract of Echinacea pupurea showed the highest anti-collagenase (78.5±0.0 %), anti-elastase (69.0±1.4 %), and anti-hyaluronidase (64.2±0.3 %) inhibitory activities, suggesting usefulness for cosmeceutical formulations. Chaiyana 2021
Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce®) induced activation of antiviral innate immunity pathways, including pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis, immunometabolism, and changes in evolutionarily conserved endogenous retroviral sequences, in human monocytes. Declerck 2021
Partially degraded arabinogalactans from Echinacea purpurea showed direct binding capacities to cancer targets galectins-1, -3, and -7. Pfeifer 2021
Aqueous extracts of Echinacea purpurea petals and leaves significantly inhibited histamine release in stimulated mast cells, while extracts of petals, leaves, and stems significantly suppressed leukotriene B4 production and petal extract decreased Syk phosphorylation and Ca2+ influx associated with signal transduction. Zorig 2021
Echinacoside, a constituent of Echinacea angustifolia, revealed significant docking energy in the SARS-CoV-2 main protease catalytic pocket. Bharadwaj 2021
An extract of Echinacea purpurea roots time- and dose-dependently inhibited the viability and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells in vitro, effects associated with activity of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. Hosami 2021
Echinacea purpurea petal and leaf water extracts significantly inhibited histamine release and suppressed the release of LTB4 production, a chemical mediator from mast cells; the stem extract did not exert any effect. Zorig 2021
Echinacea purpurea root extract time- and dose-dependently decreased viability of A549 lung cancer cells and increased cellular ROS level and caspase 3 activity. Hosami 2021
Extracts of Echinacea purpurea and E.angustifolia roots inhibited fatty acid amide hydrolase, the main (endo)cannabinoid-degrading enzyme, by up to 87%, in vitro, with cichoric acid and dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide identified as the major active compounds. Liu 2020
Screening of a drugbank database reported on echinacoside as one of the few compounds targeting a DNA gyrase enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in retardation of the growth of the bacteria. Balasubramani 2020
A novel compound, purpureaterpene E, isolated from the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea along with 11 other sesquiterpenes, showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against nitric oxide production in cultured macrophages. Cheng 2020
An Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echinaforce®) irreversibly inactivated human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 upon direct contact, and showed a protective effect against HCoV-229E infection in a model of nasal epithelium, in vitro. Signer 2020
Echinacoside, a constituent of echinacea, disrupted the action of hepatitis B virus X on renal tubular epithelial cells, in vitro. Zhang 2020
In a study of antibacterial effects of an herbal formula comprising Hydrastis canadensis, Commiphora habessinica, Phytolacca americana, and E. purpurea, E. purpurea alone did not inhibit the growth of either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn 2020
Echinalkamide, a novel compound isolated from Echinacea purpurea root cultures, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and proliferation and inhibited bone resoprtion with no evidence of toxicity. Chang 2020
Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides (EPP) and sulfated EPPs were found to significantly enhance the immunostimulatory activity of chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Yao 2019
An extract of Echinacea purpurea root was shown to increase TNF production by concanavalin A-activated murine splenocytes but did not affect splenocyte survival or IL-2 production and only modestly increased IFN-? levels in vitro. Cadiz 2019
Echinacoside was found to selectively attenuate cell injury and to reverse mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic failure caused by Complex I inhibitors, as well as to enhance Complex II activity and mitochondrial respiration in cells treated with Complex I inhibitors. Ma 2019
Cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea was shown to attenuate lipid accumulation and associated morphological changes in an in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by enhancing Akt/GSK3β signaling pathways and modulating downstream expressions related to lipid metabolism. Guo 2018
An ethanolic extract of E. purpurea root inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by 83.5%, histamine release by 47%, and intracellular calcium increase, in bone-marrow derived mast cells, leukemia cells, and macrophages, dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide shown to be responsible for the effect. Gulledge 2018
An echinacea flower extract is reported to inhibit bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells in vitro, as a model of pharyngitis. Wijesundara 2017
Echinaforce (a standardized extract of Echinacea purpurea) decreased the adhesion Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus, induced by influenza virus A co-infection, in human bronchial epithelial cells, via down-regulation of ICAM-1 receptor expression, induced by the virus. Vimalanathan 2017
A polysaccharide-enriched Echinacea purpurea extract activated bone marrow-derived macrophages, enhancing the phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal activities, in vitro. Fu 2017
A 50%-ethanolic Echinacea purpurea flower extract contained 78.42 mg/g of caffeic acid derivatives (56.03 mg/g cichoric acid) and showed anti-diabetic activity in vitro. Chiou 2017
The chemical, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties of hydroalcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts and roots, and E. angustifolia roots, leaves, flowers, and seeds were evaluated. Aarland 2017
An echinacea alkamide increased glucose uptake and expression and translocation of glucose transporter 4 in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with sub-optimal levels of insulin, via the stimulation of Akt pathway. Choi 2017
Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves of Echinacea purpurea, showed antimicrobial activities toward the bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, associated with drug resistance in cystic fibrosis patients. Chiellini 2017
Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (400 μg/ml) induced maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells via activation of JNK, p38-MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, in vitro. Li 2017
Characterization of the bacterial community colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully explained the immunomodulatory activity of the plant extracts, with Proteobacteria being especially active. Haron 2016
Hydroethanolic extract of fresh plant material was found to provide the best antioxidant activity directly related with its chemical profile, with tablets followed by syrup revealing the worst effects, among Echinacea purpurea preparations tested. Pires 2016
Purple coneflower as antiviral agent. [Article in German; no abstract] Schlenger 2016
A combination of ethanolic extracts of Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea roots (12.5-200 μg/mL) differentially affected proliferation of cancer cells, and promoted the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, in vitro. Cichello 2015
The potential antifungal activity of echinacea against P. expansum and A. niger was assessed. Cano 2015
Echinacoside was found to effectively inhibit the catalytic activity of the nucleotide pool sanitizing enzyme MTH1, associated with cancer cell survival, in a high-throughput in vitro screening of natural compounds capable of the activity. Toxicity of the compound to cancer cells was demonstrated. Dong 2015
Cichoric acid, abundant in echinacea, increased glucose uptake in HepG2 cells with glucosamine-induced insulin resistance by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter 2, and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory molecules. Zhu 2015
An aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (polyphenol- and alkylamide-free) inhibited TNF-α release from an experimentally induced human monocytic cell line, in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner. The effect was ascribed to a polysaccharide. Fast 2015
The structural requirements for the inhibitory effect of Echinacea alkylamides on TNF-α production were studied. Moazami 2015
Chemical and spectroscopic analyses of "Echinacea complex" were performed. The complex also produced antitussive effect similar to that of codeine, and a stronger bronchodilatory effect compared to that of salbutamol. Capek 2015
A 75%-ethanolic extract of Echinacea purpurea roots suppressed TNF-α production by RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells, which could be attributed in part to alkylamides, in part to a novel compound, xanthienopyran; some extracts enhanced TNF-α production due to LPS from endophytic bacteria. Todd 2015
Compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor (ERα and/or ERβ) were identified in Echinacea. Powers 2015
Isomeric C12-alkamides were found to be responsible for the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ by a dichloromethane extract of Echinacea purpurea roots. Kotowska 2014
An extract of Echinacea angustifolia down-regulated IL1β and PPARγ expression, and upregulated the expression of NFE2L2, in macrophages treated with a nontoxic concentration of H2O2, in vitro. Pomari 2014
Immunomodulatory activity of echinacea was compared to those of 10 other commonly used substances (e.g., astragalus, resveratrol, and glucan). Vetvicka 2014
A water-soluble extract of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts, containing 80% polysaccharides and no alkylamides, induced a strong, dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of interleukin-2 and, in the presence of additional stimulators, of interferon-gamma, in vitro. Fonseca 2014
Alkamides found in echinacea, as well as an Echinacea extract induced membrane disruption in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which possibly underlies the antifungal activity of the plant. Cruz 2014
An ethanolic extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (and its constituent dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide) enhanced adipocyte differentiation, as shown by increased accumulation of lipids, as well as gradual up-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα, in the 3T3-L1 cell model. Shin 2014
Echinacea angustifolia was found to be ineffective against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Snowden 2014
Four out of eight alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia were found to inhibit calcein transport mediated by P-glycoprotein, a major contributor to the blood-brain barrier, in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro. Mahringer 2013
Total bacterial loads in the plant material, estimated using a novel, PCR-based method, were strongly correlated with the immunomodulatory activity (NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells) of Echinacea purpurea samples. Pugh 2013
A 50%-aqueous ethanolic extract of Echinacea purpurea flowers dose- and time-dependently inhibited the proliferation of the human colon cancer Caco-2 and HCT-116 cells, with one of its compounds, cichoric acid, also shown to induce apoptosis and decrease telomerase activity in the cells, in vitro. Tsai 2012
Echinacoside induced nuclear translocation of NRF2 protein (at 24h), increased HMOX1 mRNA levels by more than 40-fold (at 72h), and reduced nuclear protein levels of BACH1, a repressor of the antioxidant response element, in human keratinocytes in vitro. Sgarbossa 2012
The effects of cynarin (a constituent of Echinacea purpurea) on protein-to-protein interactions were directly measured in immune T/CD28 and B/CD80 cells, using atomic force microscopy. Kao 2012
An echinacea extract suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission, with no effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission, in hippocampal slices in vitro; at low concentrations the extract reduced, while at high concentrations increased CA1 pyramidal cells spiking activity. Hájos 2012
Selective induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by low doses of Echinacea purpurea is reported. Kapai 2011
Partial and inverse agonists for cannabinoid type 1 receptors were identified among metabolites of Echinacea purpurea roots. Hohmann 2011
An Echinacea purpurea extract reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of phenytoin on mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells, associated with cleft palate, in vitro. Hu 2011
Echinacea purpurea displayed significantly higher dose-dependent antiadhesion activity towards Campylobacter jejunum than E. angustifolia, in an assay of 21 herbal extracts, including those of ginger, cayenne, and licorice. Bensch 2011
A standard Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echinaforce) eradicated the growth of clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes, and reversed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, induced by the bacterium in human bronchial epithelial cells and skin fibroblasts, in vitro. Sharma 2011
Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea root extracts increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in non-immune human cells in vitro, via phospholipase C and IP3 receptor. Participation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors was ruled out. The effect was ascribed to as yet unidentified lipophilic constituents. Wu 2010
Macromolecular glycoconjugates from Echinacea purpurea ameliorated nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite in human platelets, in vitro. Saluk-Juszczak 2010
An Echinacea sp. extract inhibited late-stage expression of an immune gene subset, putatively via delayed activation of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, in a LPS-stimulated THP-1 monocyte model, in vitro. Chiu 2010
An echinacea extract showed relatively high peroxinitrite-scavenging activity in vitro, with cichoric acid being the putative active compound. Luo 2010
The agonistic and antagonistic potential of an Echinacea purpurea alkylamide and an E. purpurea hexane extract towards human cannabinoid receptors was investigated. Geiger 2010
Echinacea extracts showed antifungal activity in Saccaromyces cerevisiae models by inducing fungal cell wall damage. Mir-Rashed 2010
Echinacea compounds were found to inhibit botulinum neurotoxin A metalloprotease. Silhár 2010
Echinacea purpurea root and leaf extracts increased or inhibited the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell markers, respectively; the leaf extract inhibited COX-2, while the root extract induced production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Benson 2010
Preparations of Echinacea inhibited the growth of trypanosomatids Leishmania donovani, L. major, and Trypanosoma brucei. No correlation with the content of alkylamides, caffeic acid derivatives, or polysaccharides was observed. Canlas 2010
Echinacea purpurea alkylamides suppressed production of TNF-α, PGE2, as well as G-CSF, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP-1α, by mouse macrophage-like cells infected with H1N1 influenza A virus. Ethanolic extracts (75%) exhibited effects ranging from suppression to stimulation of the mediator production. Cech 2010
Echinacea angustifolia extracts enriched with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 inhibited PGE2 and nitric oxide production by mouse macrophage-like cells more effectively than the extracts alone. PGE2 inhibition was attributed to direct suppression of the COX-2 enzyme. Lalone 2010
The effects of an Echinacea purpurea on multiple cytokine production were were tested in human blood ex vivo, using the Luminex xMAP technology and ELISA immunoassays. Codorean 2010
Survey of the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity shows that, of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Burns 2009
Investigation of cytotoxic activity of an acetylenic constituent of Echinacea pallida roots, namely, pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one, was performed, revealing a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on several human cancer cell lines, including leukemia, breast carcinoma and melanoma cells. Chicca 2009
HPLC fractionation, used to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, & E. tennesseensis, identified fractions containing alkylamides & ketones using RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. LaLone 2009
Hydroalcoholic Echinacea pallida extracts interfere with free herpes virus but pressed juice is able to interact with herpesvirus inside and outside the cell as well as to protect cells against viral infection, probably by interfering with virus attachment. Schneider 2009
Study found undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid, an Echinacea angustifolia-derived alkylamide lacking affinity for the CB2 receptor, inhibits IL-2 secretion in Jurkat T cells through PPARgamma activity at low micromolar concentrations (330 ng/mL). Spelman 2009
A study was performed to ascertain whether a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) affects proliferation and interferon gamma secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Wu 2009
Echinacea preparations can alleviate "cold and flu" symptoms, and possibly other respiratory disorders, by inhibiting viral growth and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Sharma 2009
Standardization of alkylamide content may allow the exploitation of beneficial interactions between alkylamide components to enhance the therapeutic effect of Echinacea, a widely used complementary medicine. Toselli 2009
3,6-branched arabinogalactan-type tetra- and hexasaccharides were prepared for investigation of monoclonal antibodies raised against arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) from pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea. Fekete 2009
Echinacea polysaccharide was able to exert an antiviral action on the development of recurrent HSV-1 disease when supplied prior to infection. Ghaemi 2009
It is suggested that flowers of Echinacea purpurea contain compounds with potential to manage insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Christensen 2009
Unsaturated N-alkylamide lipids, the main constituent of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia preparations capable of activating the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) may play a role as potential anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory principles. Chicca 2009
Various extracts of Cyclotrichium niveum (CN) and Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus (TP), Echinacea purpurea, and E. pallida along with the essential oils of CN and TP were assessed for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activities. Orhan 2009
Under real life conditions of echinacea consumption, the virus-induced stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines can be effectively reversed or alleviated. Sharma 2009
To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet) were first evaluated on ovine neutrophil functions. Farinacci 2009
Findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Echinacea might be due to multiple active metabolites working together to switch macrophage activation from classical activation towards alternative activation. Zhai 2009
It is found that After Flowing Through Immobilized Receptor is a promising method for screening selective active compounds from herbal medicine and that cynarin, found in Echinacea purpurea, has great potential as an immuno-suppressive agent. Dong 2009
The effects of Echinacea and several of its phytochemical components on NFkappaB expression by Jurkat cells (a human T-cell line) were investigated in vitro which showed that Echinacea alkylamides modulate induced immune responses in T-cells. Matthias 2008
Echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, Siberian ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto and St John's wort are among the popular supplements associated with various product claims, which suggest that they possess cyclooxygenase enzyme and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Raman 2008
Study demonstrated that Echinacea angustifolia extract can stimulate mammary epithelial cell physiology and may be considered a candidate to support mammary gland activity during a mammogenetic and lactogenetic state. Starvaggi Cucuzza 2008
Modulation of ovine neutrophil function & apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa & Curcuma longa were evaluated & showed that Curcuvet has antiinflammatory activity, whereas Polinacea & B. frondosa have an immunomodulatory action on sheep neutrophils. Farinacci 2008
Many of most commonly used complementary and alternative medicines including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort & shepherd's purse, exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects. Mazzio 2008
[Prophylactic effects of Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide against lethal ocular herpes simplex virus type I.] Ghaemi 2008
It is demonstrated that an endotoxin-free Echinacea purpurea extract enriched for plant polysaccharide activates the innate immune response, stimulating production of IL-6, TNF, IL-12, and NO from macrophages in vitro. Sullivan 2008
Potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts have been identified. Pugh 2008
Cannabis sativa L. with the known plant cannabinoid, Delta(9-) tetrahydrocannabinol and Echinacea species with the cannabinoid receptor-binding lipophilic alkamides are the best known herbal cannabimimetics. Woelkart 2008
Certain endocannabinoid-like fatty acid N-alkylamides from purple coneflower (ECHINACEA spp.) potently activate CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Study focused on the plant fatty acid amides and their overall cannabinomodulatory effects. Gertsch 2008
It is indicated that the ketoalkenes from Echinacea pallida are not responsible for immunomodulatory effects mediated via the cannabinergic system. However, newly synthesized non-natural analogues showed micro-molar potency at both cannabinoid receptors. Egger 2008
The species that produced the highest mortality and control percentage on in vitro tick, tested by immersion method, included Echinacea angustiofilia and E. angustifolia, P. punctatum respectively. [Article in Spanish] Alvarez 2008
Echinacea purpurea extracts showed antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that cichoric acid may be involved. Echinacea roots had potent activity as agonists of TRPV1, a mammalian pain receptor reported as an integrator of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia. Birt 2008
The cytotoxic effects of 5 compounds including 2 polyacetylenes isolated from the n-hexane extract of Echinacea pallida roots by bioassay-guided fractionation, were investigated on human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 & colonic COLO320 cancer cell lines & found to have a direct cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Chicca 2008
The common herbal products, St. John's wort, common valerian, common sage, Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea & horse chestnut were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potential of cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolism which showed that all of them inhibited CYP2D6 activity to some extent. Hellum 2007
It is demonstrated that Echinacea is a wide-spectrum immunomodulator that modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, E. angustifolia or E. pallida may have more anti-inflammatory potential. Zhai 2007
Ethanolic extracts from fresh Echinacea purpurea & Spilanthes acmella were examined with regard to their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450(2E1) mediated oxidation of p-nitrophenol in vitro which showed that the alkylamides present in E. purpurea & S. acmella showed significant inhibition. Raner 2007
An experiment conducted using H4 human neuroglioma cells revealed that certain alkamides derived from Echinacea angustifolia roots may contribute to the pharmacological action of the herbal extract by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2- dependent prostaglandin E2 formation at sites of inflammation. Hinz 2007
It was found that alkamides bind significantly to CB (2) receptors, which is now considered as a possible molecular mode of action of Echinacea alkamides as immunomodulatory agents. Woelkart 2007
The Cytokine- and interferon- immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea tinctures from seven species after being stored at -20 degrees C for 2 years was examined using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. McCann 2007
Standardized extracts of Echinacea, cat's claw, and saw palmetto were each evaluated for ability to activate macrophage and natural killer cells, in vitro, using two independent measures of activation for each immune cell population. Groom 2007
The immunomodulatory activity of Echinacea is due to the alkylamides 2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetranoic acid isobutylamide & total alkylamide content. The Cytochrome P450 inhibitory action of Echinacea preparations differs widely and co-varies with alkylamide content. Modarai 2007
A study on self-assembling cannabinomimetics showed that certain fatty acid N-alkyl amides from Echinacea activate cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors. CB2-binding Echinacea constituents dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide & dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide form micelles. Raduner 2007
Study of the effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo showed increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation. Chaves 2007
All Echinacea species significantly decreased inflammatory mediators in vitro, however, only E. angustifolia and E. purpurea reduced bacterial killing. Zhai 2007
It is shown that the chloroform extract of Carduus nutans (nodding thistle) aerial parts (IC50, 9.3 microg/mL) and the hexane extract of Echinacea angustifolia DC. (narrow-leaved purple coneflower) root (IC50, 4.0 microg/mL) were moderately to highly cytotoxic to the lung cancer cell line. Ramírez-Erosa 2007
The effects of plant extracts including Echinacea on the viability, membrane integrity, antioxidant status & DNA integrity of Caco-2 cells as well as cytoprotective & genoprotective effects of these plant extracts against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells were determined. Aherne 2007
The potential in vitro cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of hexanic root extract of the three medicinal Echinacea species (Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea) on the human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 and colon cancer COLO320 cell lines was investigated. Chicca 2007
The plant antimicrobial berberine, the active component of the medicinal plants echinacea and golden seal, is a cation that is readily extruded by bacterial multidrug-resistance pumps, thereby rendering it relatively ineffective as a therapeutic agent. Ball 2006
It is found that N-alkyl amides from purple coneflower (Echinacea spp.) constitute a new class of cannabinomimetics, which specifically engage and activate the cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors. Gertsch 2006
Influences of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on proliferation & IgM-production of mouse lymphocytes as well as nitrite-& IL6-production of mouse macrophages were investigated in vitro. AGPs were isolated & purified from roots of Echinacea pallida & suspension culture of E. purpurea. Classen 2006
The products formed by incubation of an Echinacea extract & an isolated alkylamide with human liver microsomes was characterized & the influence of E.purpurea alkylamides & metabolites on cytokine production by Jurkat human T cells were evaluated which showed immunomodulatory effects. Cech 2006
It is indicated that tinctures from different Echinacea species have different patterns of immune modulation and certain species may be efficacious in the immune response to viral infection. Senchina 2006
It is demonstrated for the first time that Echinacea purpurea extracts can modulate dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation and expression of specific immune-related genes in DCs. Wang 2006
The effects of Echinacea treatment and rhinovirus infection on the activation of a range of transcription factors in uninfected cells and rhinovirus-infected cells were evaluated by means of a protein/DNA array analysis. Sharma 2006
Echinacea angustifolia root extracts showed proliferative activity on cancer cells which also interefered with doxorubicin cytotoxicity. The phenolic compounds are found to be responsible for this proliferative action. Huntimer 2006
The concentration of compound that inhibited cell growth by 50% (IC(50)) of a range of phytochemicals and plant extracts including bearberry and Echinacea purpurea was determined and their antioxidant and genoprotective effects under conditions of oxidative stress in U937 cells was investigated. O'Brien 2006
The in vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that the 18 reviewed botanical medicines including Echinacea purpurea & Grifola frondosa, modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. Spelman 2006
Flow cytometric investigations show binding of an isolated arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) from pressed juice of the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea to the cell surface of human leucocytes. AGP demonstrates binding to lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes of different donors. Thude 2006
The cytotoxic activity of the isolated constituents of Echinacea purpurea against MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was evaluated in the concentration range 1-100 microg/ml. Pellati 2006
Alkylamides present in Echinacea purpurea suppress the ability of activated Jurkat T cells to produce IL-2 independently of direct, cytotoxic effects. Sasagawa 2006
Bioassay suggests that echinacea, propolis, elder, mastic gum, marigold, sage, lavender, thyme, and chamomile may inhibit halitosis. Sterer 2006
It is demonstrated that Echinacea is an effective modulator of macrophage immune responses in vitro as seen from its responses on the measures of three macrophage immune functions namely NF-kappaB, TNF- alpha and nitric oxide. Stevenson 2005
The Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100 was used in the plate-incorporation test to examine the antimutagenic potential of caffeic, ferulic and cichoric acids extracted from plant species of genera Echinacea, as well as of other phenolic acids and sodium azide mutagenicity. Birosová 2005
Homemade Echinacea extracts were found to be efficacious in modulating immune cell activity in vitro but their properties changed with time during storage at 4 degrees C & the endotoxin effects from extracts were important in the analysis of immunobiological data. Senchina 2005
The radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts of roots of Echinacea species evaluated in vitro using the DPPH* radical scavenging method shows that the EC50 values of the samples ranged from 122 to 1223 microg/mL. Pellati 2005
Study on botany, cultivation, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacology and toxicology of Echinacea purpurea carried out & 2 other species E. angustifolia and E. pallida also included in the taxonomic, cultivation & pharmacognostic studies. [Article in Chinese] Zhang 2004
A first time about the possible molecular mechanism of action of Echinacea, highlights the role of alkylamides as potent immunomodulators and potential ligands for cannabinoid CB2 receptors. Gertsch 2004
The peroral administration of the macromolecular components of a herbal immunomodulator isolated from 4 mixed herbal drugs including Echinaceae purpureae radix & Echinaceae pallidae radix found to modulate the mucosal immune response in mice. Bodinet 2004
The immune stimulatory ability of components contained within Echinacea purpurea extracts offer insight into possible therapeutic potential of this product to regulate non-adherent lymphocytes in immune responses and activation events. Hwang 2004
Purple Coneflower(Echinacea purpurea) preparation from roots found to activate the cellular immunity and stimulate phagocytosis of neutrophils in vitro, in vivo and after rinsing of mouth cavity. [Article in Lithuanian] Jurkstiene 2004
Protective effects of Echinacea purpurea against radiation by evaluating changes in the peripheral blood cell count and peripheral blood antioxidant activity was studied & the effects of immune activation by E. purpurea investigated by measuring total immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM). Mishima 2004
Monoclonal antibodies against an arabinogalactan-proteins from pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea with complement-stimulating activity is established by means of hybridoma techniques. Classen 2004
In vitro exposure of THP-1 cells to 250 microg/ml of Echinacea species extracts induced expression (up to 10-fold) of the interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 genes. Randolph 2003
[Understanding echinacea.]. [No authors listed] 2003
Review on medicinal properties of Echinacea indicates that Phagocytotic indices & macrophage-derived cytokine concentrations have been shown to be Echinacea-responsive in a variety of assays & used in the treatment for acute upper respiratory infection. Barrett 2003
Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Echinacea extracts at the concentration of 0.1 microg/ml showed that the extracts are potent activators of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity. Gan 2003
Echinacea & St. John's wort at the 2 dose levels (30 and 100 mg kg(-1) per day) found to modulate apoptosis in mice splenic lymphocytes in vivo & the action could be mediated in part by a decrease in Fas-Ag expression & in part by an increase in Bcl-2 expression. Di Carlo 2003
Combined live vaccination and feed supplementation with 0.1% or 0.5% Echinacea purpurea to challenge infection with coccidia in an experimental model during the first 2 weeks of life provided significant weight gain advantage compared to live vaccination alone. Allen 2003
[Echinacea: immune effects need more research.]. Glanville 2003
Advances in scientific methodology to understand the actions of some herbal medicines (e.g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, have been summarized. Phillipson 2003
[Immuno-modulating properties of medicinal plant preparation from Echinacea purpurea].[Article in Russian] Kislova 2003
Among 5 herbal remedies, Chizukit N (containing propolis and Echinacea, claimed to be immune enhancers) caused a moderate increase in interleukin (IL)-10 production (1.4 fold). Both Protec and Chizukit N caused moderate decreases in IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6 production. Barak 2002
Immunomodulating & antiviral characteristics of the single active ingredients Echinaceae (purpureae et pallidae)radix, Baptisiae tinctoriae radix & Thujae occidentalis herba & the combination Esberitox N is verified in vitro, in vivo, in animal study & in human pharmacology. [Article in German] Kohler 2002
Preparations made from the pressed juice of the flowering aerial parts of the Purple Coneflower, Echinacea purpurea represent the most commonly used herbal immunnomodulatory agents and the stimulation of makrophages and induction of cytokins are major parts of the mode of action. [Article in German] Bauer 2002
Investigaton of the ability of nutraceutical exposure to influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria revealed that Garlic, Echinacea & zinc products all caused large increases in the MIC to ampicillin over baseline values. Ward 2002
The antioxidative properties of cynarin (from Cynara scolymus), rosmarinic acid (from Rosmarinus officinalis), echinacoside (from Echinacea species), puerarin (from Pueraria lobata), and oleuropein (from Olea europea) were evaluated by using a new Briggs-Rauscher reaction method. Cervellati 2002
The complement activating effects of AGP (arabinogalactan-protein) found to contribute to the well-established immunostimulating effects of the pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea. Alban 2002
This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety for several herbs. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Ernst 2002
Thirty-six extracts of 32 herbs belonging to 27 families in use as herbal remedies, including echinacea, were found to inhibit the Epstein--Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA)in Raji cells exposed to the tumor promoter TPA (32 pM) by more than 90%. Kapadia 2002
At 100 microg/ml, several Echinacea purpurea alkamides inhibited COX-I and COX-II enzymes in the range of 36-60% and 15-46%, respectively, as compared to controls. Clifford 2002
Extracts of 8 taxa of the genus Echinacea were found to have antiviral activity against Herpes simplex (HSV) virus Type I in vitro when exposed to visible and UV-A light. n-Hexane root extracts containing alkenes and amides were more active than ethyl acetate extracts containing caffeic acids. Binns 2002
The University of Arizona has initiated a study on the use of echinacea in the prevention of recurrent otitis media. The number and diversity of echinacea preparations are detailed; the role of the physician as "botanical" advisor to patients and families is examined. Mark 2001
Strong evidence that high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine supplementation or echinacea extracts can prevent exercise-induced immunosuppression is lacking. Gleeson 2001
Hexane extracts of Echinacea variably inhibit growth of yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehata, C. kefyr, C. albicans, C. steatulytica and C. tropicalis under near UV irradiation (phototoxicity) & to a lower extent without irradiation (conventional antifungal activity). Binns 2000
Root extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical. Similar scavenging activities for each variety were found for both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS radical. Hu 2000
Echinacea purpurea, but not thyroxin, increased NK cell numbers in the bone marrow generation site of aging mice, leading to an increase in the absolute numbers of NK cells in the spleen, which is their primary destiny. Currier 2000
Echinacea herb and root powders were found to stimulate murine macrophage cytokine secretion as well as to significantly enhance the viability and/or proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Rininger 2000
The consensus of the studies reviewed in this article is that echinacea is effective in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms, but that this effect is noted only with certain preparations of echinacea Percival 2000
Herbal effects on the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes and the integrity of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid showed high concentrations of echinacea and ginkgo reduced oocyte penetration and exposure of sperm to echinacea purpura and St. John's wort resulted in DNA denaturation. Ondrizek 1999
An antigen-independent model phytoimmunomodulation is described using an allopathic herbal combined preparation containing Echinacea root, wild indigo root, and white cedar leaf tips Wustenberg 1999
In vitro testing against various strains of herpes with a proprietary blend of benzalkonium chloride and E purpurea Thompson 1998
Both echinacea and ginseng, at 0.1 or 10 mcg/kg, respectively, enhanced NK-function and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells See 1997
0.012 mcg/ml of juice of E purpurea increased human macrophage levels of IL-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 Burger 1997
Benefit (mainly nonspecific cellular immune system) from juice of upper parts of E purpurea and alcohol extracts of roots of E pallida, E angustifolia and E purpurea attributed to polysaccharides, glycoproteins, caffeic acids (cichoric acid) and alkamides Bauer 1996
The antimicrobial activity of mercurius cyanatus complex & its components including Echinacea angustifolia D1, was tested in vitro by serial dilution tests against 105 clinical isolates (gram positive/ negative, aerobes & anaerobes with relevance for pharyngitis).[Article in German] Vestweber 1995
Type III collagen is protected from radical-induced degradation by microM concentrations of echinacoside Facino 1995
Polyunsaturated alkamides isolated from 4 species, including Achillea & Echinacea angustifolia DC., were shown to possess inhibitory activity in in vitro cyclooxygenase (sheep seminal microsomes) and 5-lipoxygenase (porcine leukocytes) assays. Muller-Jakic 1994
E. purpurea preparations increased the in vitro phagocytosis of Candida albicans by granulocytes and monocytes from healthy donors by 30-45% Wildfeuer 1994
Viral antigens appear earlier from herpes stimulated immature T cell HSB2 cells treated with echinacin, timunox and TP-1, but not with isoprinosine Eichler 1994
Echinacea purpurea extract dose dependently stimulates reaction of the granulocytes--phagocytis and therefore chemilumenescence Gaisbauer 1990
A mixture of Echinacea, Aconitum, Apis and Lachesis stimulated adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis, but inhibited chemiluminescence of PMN Stahl 1990
Echinacoside (phenylpropide) appears to be responsible for hepato-protective effect of Buddleja species leaves Houghton 1989
Review of antiviral and immune stimulant substances in Echinaceae Sicha 1989
Echinacoside (from Rehmannia root) inhibition of hemolytic plaque-forming cells Sasaki 1989
Acidic arabinogalactan, a purified polysaccharide (MW 75 kD) from E. purpurea cell cultures, activates macrophages against tumor Leishmania to produce TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IFN-B2. T and B cells are unchanged Luettig 1989
Echinacin stimulates production of lymphokines by lymphocytes Coeugniet 1987
Polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher, isolated from Echinacea purpurea, showed significant immunostimulating activities. [Article in German] Wagner 1985
The polysaccharide fractions isolated from 9 medicinal plants including Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and -angustifolia DC., according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. [Article in German] Wagner 1984
Echinacea purpurea plant polysaccharides strongly activate macrophages with increased secretion of oxygen radicals and interleukin 1. Little effect on B cells and no effect on T cells Stimpel 1984
[Evaluation of the effect of Calendula officinalis and Echinacea angustifolia extracts of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro]. [Article in Polish] Samochowiec 1979
[Virus-inhibition by echinacea purpurea]. [Article in German] Wacker 1978
[Proceedings: Echinacea activates the properdin system][Article in German]. [No authors listed] 1976
[Antiviral activity of components of Echinacea purpurea]. [Article in German] Orinda 1973
[Decrease of leukocyte resistance by chloronitrine and its prevention by Echinacin.]. [Article in German] Bolland 1964
[Experimental studies on a plant extract from Echinacea purpurea Moench as a nonspecific irritant. With special reference to the effect on the adrenal cortex.]. [Article in German] Mostbeck 1962
[Experimental tests of a plant extract from Echinacea purpurea Moench as a nonspecific stimulant with special reference to the effects on the adrenal cortex.]. [Article in German] Mostbeck 1962a
[Research in man and animal on the effect of Echinacea extracts on artificial formation of connective tissues after fibrin implantations.] [Article in German] Tunnerhoff 1956
[Experimental studies on local tissue effect of Echinacea purpurea Moench.]. [Article in Undetermined Language] KOCH 1953b
[Experimental studies on the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the hypophyseal-adrenocortical system.]. [Article in Undetermined Language] KOCH 1953a
The ability of Echinacea and its components to alter the immune response was examined in vitro in a macrophage cell line under either basal or immunostimulated conditions which showed that alkylamides from echinacea modulate induced immune responses in macrophages. Matthias 2007
Flow cytometric characterization of cellular viability & shape changes of neutrophils was a suitable and reliable approach for the quality test of immunomodulating phytomedicine, equimun, a fixed combination of Echinacea purpurea , Thuja occidentalis & elemental phosphorus based on bioassays. Schuberth 2002
Echinacea angustifolia compounds, including echinacoside, showed potential to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Bharadwaj 2021
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Soaring Bear, Ph.D.
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
December 2022