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Scientific Name:
Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
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Modern Methods of Preparation
Compared to higher concentrations, or extracts obtained via the microwave method, the lower-concentration hydro-alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea developed silver nanoparticles with the smallest dimensions, and enhanced antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. Fierascu 2022
Echinacea purpurea and 11 other herbs undergoing cold plasma treatment increasedantioxidant activity and anthocyanin, pH, and polyphenol content and decreased aerobic bacteria. Because the plant material after extraction was significantly damaged, this may have led to a higher yield of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Pogorzelska-Nowicka 2021
Airborne ultrasound pretreatment increased chemical properties and preserved quality and quantity of active ingredients compared to optimal state in drying echinacea root with an infrared dryer by 54/21-81/64%. Rostami 2021
Controlled release niosome-encapsulated Echinacea angustifolia extract showed up to 16-fold higher antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains compared to the free extract, with minimal cytotoxicity against human foreskin fibroblasts. Moghtaderi
Ultrasound-assisted extraction was more effective than maceration in extracting phenolic acids from Echinacea purpurea under the optimal conditions, as follows: glycerol 90% (m/m), temoerature 70 °C, ultrasound power 72 W, time 40 min, and ascorbic acid 0 mg/mL. Momchev 2020
Assessment of "green" enzymatic extraction techniques showed Echinacea angustifolia extracts obtained with cellulase and xylanase to provide the highest yields and the strongest antioxidant activities, whereas pectinase yielded the highest polysaccharide content reported to date. Russo 2019
A review is presented on emerging technologies in the production and use of Echinacea products, such as the use of seed oil, bioreactors, genetic engineering, and controlled biotic or abiotic elicitation, with potential to significantly improve yield, consistency, and overall quality . Parsons 2018
A new method, utilizing supercritical fluid extraction, for obtaining extracts containing polyacetylenes and polyenes from Echinacea pallida roots is reported. Tacchini 2017
Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 and/or C2 (previously isolated from plant materials) enhanced the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Echinacea purpurea, in vitro, partially associated with peptide constituents. Rizzello 2013
The influence of various parameters on the variability of tableting properties and characteristics of tablets prepared with a fixed amount of echinacea tincture was investigated. Qusaj 2012
High pressure pasteurization reduced microbial contamination in both roots and flowers of Echinacea purpurea, without affecting the phytochemical retention of chicoric and chlorogenic acids, total alkamide contents, antioxidant, and nitric oxide production-inhibitory activities of the extracts. Chen 2010
Investigation of the role of alkylamides in the inhibition of Cytochrome P450 3A4 by echinacea uncovered a new compound which may also be involved. Large differences in the composition of the commercially available preparations were found. Modarai 2009
The marker substances echinacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside & rosmarinic acid found in dried parts of Echinacea pallida Nutt., dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. & dried herb of Pulmonaria officinalis L. cannot be found in homoeopathic mother tinctures prepared from fresh material. Biber 2009
The alkamide stability in Echinacea purpurea extracts with and without phenolic acids in dry films and in solution was monitored. Liu 2007
Highly water soluble fructans have been isolated from Echinacea purpurea roots by hot water extraction & precipitation at 3 different ethanol concentrations. The structure of fructans has been characterised by GC method & 13C NMR analysis and their degree of polymerisation assessed. Wack 2006
Echinacea, the herb widely used for the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory tract infection, exerts its action through immunostimulation & for oral administration, tablets, extracts, fresh pressed juice, teas and tinctures have been used. Islam 2005
Assessment of commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort for their consistent labeling revealed that the content did vary widely between brands e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9-15.3 mg per serving. Krochmal 2004
Quality of chewable tablets of Echinacea purpurea liquid extract & Vit. C were evaluated in terms of appearance & technological rates like average tablet mass, hardness against pressure, hardness against wearing, time of disintegration & speed of ascorbic acid secretion. [Article in Lithuanian] Bernatoniene 2003
The variation in label information of products for each of the 10 most commonly purchased herbs echinacea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, was described. Garrard 2003
Drying of root & aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea with hot air at temperatures in range 40-70 degrees C does not make any difference in concentration of the alkylamides at any drying temperature, but resulted in decreased concentration of cichoric acid. Stuart 2003
Qualitative & quantitative assessment of Echinacea-only preparations available in a retail setting by TLC indicates that, of the samples, 6(10%)of 59 preparations contained no measurable Echinacea & assayed species content was consistent with labeled content in 31 (52%) of the samples. Gilroy 2003
The validated micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method was applied to the determination of cichoric acid and related compounds in Echinacea purpurea root extracts, and in commercial E. purpurea based dried extracts and tablets. Pomponio 2002
Treatment of 3 natural antioxidants, citric acid, malic acid, and hibiscus extract on glycerin extract of Echinacea purpurea greatly improved the stability of caffeic acid derivatives. Bergeron 2002
Experiments comparing freeze-dried, freshly harvested Echinacea plants to those harvested & dried using various commercially relevant conditions suggest that variability in in vitro macrophage activation is predominantly due to bacterial lipoproteins & lipopolysaccharides. Wang 2001
The effect of production-technological conditions in relation to the ontogenetic stage of plants in three different species of Echinacea purpurea, E. atrorubens, and E.pallida and the differences in the content of essential oil in different plant organs were evaluated. [Article in Slovak] Vaverkova 2001
[Need for additional, specific information in studies with Echinacea]. Dennehy 2001
Levels of alkamides in Echinacea purpurea fell by over 80% during storage at 24 degrees C for 64 weeks but chopping altered the levels of some alkamides slightly, whereas drying had no effect. Perry 2000
Using HPLC, chicoric acid & caftaric acid levels were quantitated in dried flowers of Canadian-grown Echinacea purpurea & these acids were found to be affected by the drying method conditions used. Kim 2000b
Some traditional botanical extract marker compounds are esters and glycosides of phenolics such as echinacoside from Echinacea while others are free phenolics, such as quercetin from glycosides in Ginkgo. Baugh 2000
Inhibitor studies conducted with protein extracts prepared from dried overground parts of E. purpurea revealed that polyphenol oxidases (PPO) but not peroxidases are responsible for the oxidative degradation of exogenous and endogenous caffeic acid derivatives. Nusslein 2000
Pharmaceutical comparability study of different therapeutic Echinacea preparations indicates that preclinical and clinical studies with Echinacea-containing drugs should always include quantification of the potentially active components. [Article in German] Osowski 2000
Review on evaluation of echinacea for treatment of the common cold reveals that the results are unclear because of methodologic uncertainties, such as small populations and use of noncommercially available, nonstandardized dosage forms. Giles 2000
Stability study of an alkamide and a phenolic phytochemical marker in a hydro-alcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea root & a dried powder prepared by evaporation of the extract suggest that more attention should be given to the effect of formulation & temperature on storage of Echinacea products. Livesey 1999
Results of a clinical trial in 263 patients of a commercially available fixed combination herbal remedy (Radix echinaceae, Radix baptisiae, Herba thujae) showed the superiority of the herbal remedy over placebo (p < 0.05). Henneicke-von Zepelin 1999
An antigen-independent model phytoimmunomodulation is described using an allopathic herbal combined preparation containing Echinacea root, wild indigo root, and white cedar leaf tips Wustenberg 1999
GC/NPD and rapid screening TLC methods for the simultaneous determination of uracil herbicide residues (bromacil, lenacil, terbacil) in the roots of E angustifolia Tekel 1998
[The classification of therapeutically used species of the genus Echinacea][Article in German] Heinzer 1988
Mixture of Thuja occidentalis, E angustifolia, E purpurea, Baptisia) improved phagocytosis of erythrocytes Vomel 1985
History of Record
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
December 2022