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Scientific Name:
Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Common Name:
echinacea
Evidence of Activity
Genetics
A comparison of DNA-based methods for authentication of commercial Echinacea spp. dietary supplements found that genome skimming allowed to identify genus and/or species in 10 out of 20 products; PCR amplicon (metabarcoding) resolved 7 of the products to the family level, whereas HPLC-UV suggested the presence of Echinacea spp. in 19 of the same products. Handy 2021
Draft genome sequence is reported for an Arthrobacter sp. strain isolated from the stem and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, and able to inhibit humano-pathogenic bacteria. Miceli 2017
The draft genome sequence of a Pseudomonas sp. strain isolated from Echinacea purpurea roots, and possessing antibacterial activity is presented. Maggini 2017
Complete chloroplast genomes of all 9 Echinacea species were sequenced, allowing differentiation of the species, which has not been previously achieved using only core DNA barcoding. Zhang 2017
The branched-chain amino acid precursors of Echinacea alkamides, and the enzyme responsible for their transformation were tentatively identified. Rizhsky 2016
A multi-modal approach combining next-generation (NGS) sequencing and HPLC-MS testing for active compounds was used for the authentication of herbal supplements, including those with Echinacea purpurea. Ivanova 2016
A Giemsa C-banding technique was developed for identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea. Jiang 2016
Reference transcriptome assemblies were developed for several Compositae crops, including Echinacea angustifolia. Hodgins 2014
Microsatellite markers for Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. Ison 2013
A novel genetic tool (Subtracted Diversity Array) was developed for fingerprinting of Echinacea species. Olarte 2013
In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro from petiole explants through colchicines had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature. Nilanthi 2009
From a high molecular weight fraction Echinacea purpurea, arabinogalactan-proteins, a class of proteoglycans proposed to be involved in cell differentiation and plant growth, were purified and characterized with regard to amino acid composition and structure of the polysaccharide moiety. Bossy 2009
Study found that Echinacea pallida is a diverse allopolyploid, incorporating the genomes of Echinacea simulata and another taxon, possibly Echinacea sanguinea & the most recognized taxa of Echinacea can be identified by their distinct lipophilic metabolite fingerprints. Wu 2009
The specific and differential gene expression in human immature dendritic cells in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea was investigated. Wang 2008
The effects of Echinacea was examined by using gene expression analysis in a line of human bronchial epithelial cells, with or without rhinovirus infection. Altamirano-Dimas 2007
A Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker was converted for Echinacea purpurea into a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) marker. SCAR-PCR revealed the expected amplicon (330 bp) only in E. purpurea and not in the other two species. Adinolfi 2007
Thidiazuron-induced morphogenesis of Echinacea purpurea was investigated and the possibility of developing a liquid-based protocol for rapid micropropagation was assessed. Jones 2007
Phenetic comparison of seven echinacea species which are commonly used to treat upper respiratory infections based on immunomodulatory characteristics revealed that that Echinacea spp. act heterogeneously on immune function. Senchina 2006
The application of DNA micro-arrays (gene arrays) to the study of herbal medicines including Echinacea was carried out. Hudson 2006
Study of the potential of 3 herbal products including Echinacea purpurea, to inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of 3 drug metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6 & 2C9. Yale 2005
Echinacea angustifolia populations found to exhibit genetic divergence along a north-south climatic gradient in North America, a region with no major geographical barriers. Still 2005
A total of 79 fragments from a monomorphic band of 273 bp and 48 fragments from a polymorphic band of 159 bp, isolated from individuals belonging to different populations, varieties, and species of Echinacea, were cloned and sequenced. Mechanda 2004
Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were used to assess genetic diversity & phenetic relationships among 9 species & 3 varieties of Echinacea & the genetic distance results showed that average pairwise distance between populations were 3 times intra-population distances. Kim 2004
Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida & E. purpurea were distinguished using the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique & genetic distance analysis indicated a high degree of difference among the 3 species. Nieri 2003
Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation occurred within the accessions of the same species, though some accessions of both Echinacea pallida and E. angustifolia were found. Kapteyn 2002
It is indicated that DNA heteroduplex mobility assay is a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate method not only for identifying and classifying phytoplasmas but also for studying the molecular epidemiology of phytoplasmas including isolates from Echinacea purpurea yellows. Wang 2001
Amplified restricted fragment length polymorphism(AFLP) data analysis was found to be a statistically significant predictor of phytochemical markers in cultivated Echinacea purpurea germplasm & some related wild species. Baum 2001
The discrimination of all three pharmaceutically relevant Echinacea species by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was described. Wolf 1999
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Soaring Bear, Ph.D.
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
January 2023