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Scientific Name:
Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Common Name:
echinacea
Other Information
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
Very fine-grade perlite and peat moss (50:50 ratio) optimized Echinacea purpurea height, fresh and dry weight, leaf surface area, and chlorophyll content in hydroponic-based production under greenhouse conditions. Increasing the nitrate to ammonium ratio caused a significant increase in plant growth parameters and essential oil content. Ahmadi 2021
Researchers examined endophytic microorganisms of Echinacea purpurea. Microscopy observations showed three different components of microorganisms associated to cypselas of E. purpurea including bacteria in the cotyledons and perianth, and a fungal component in the fruit. The fungi does not cause any damage to the plant and the bacteria in the microbiome supports germination of the seed/fruit. Cardinale 2021
A study suggests that fires increase population growth rates in Echinacea angustifolia, depending on juvenile survival, despite the generally observed population decline. Nordstrom 2021
Mixtures of perlite and peat moss, as well as nitrate sources, were tested for hydroponic-based production of Echinacea purpurea under greenhouse conditions, with 50:50 (v/v) ratio of very fine-grade perlite to peat moss found most beneficial and 90:10 NO3-/NH4+ ratio associated with increased production of terpene hydrocarbons. Ahmadi 2021
A 21-y longitudinal study of 778 individual plants of Echinacea angustifolia found that fire (scheduled burns) consistently enhanced reproduction by synchronizing reproductive cycles and increasing pollination efficiency. Wagenius 2020
An article proposes Echinacea purpurea as a model for studying interactions between medicinal plants and their bacterial endophytes. Maggini 2020
Reproductive fitness of Echinacea angustifolia populations may depend on the abundance of Andrena helianthiformis, a specialized pollinator species, according to the study. Page 2019
A study of 54 plant species with dry soil tolerance conducted in the Great Lakes region found Echinacea purpurea to be among the native plants to attract significantly more natural elements than controls. Gibson 2019
A study assessed the applicability of Echinacea purpurea for the phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sites. Hou 2019
A methanol extract from Echinacea purpurea stems and leaves inoculated with endophytic bacteria exhibited higher contents of chicoric acid and stronger activity against lactate dehydrogenase compared to non-inoculated plants. Maggini 2019
Results of an in vitro study of endophytic microbes from Echinacea purpurea suggest that the bacteria show tissue specificity in their host which can affect plant physiology (e.g. by stimulating plant growth). Maggini 2019
Contrasting differences in the aroma profiles of volatile compounds were observed between Echinacea purpurea plants inoculated and not inoculated with native stem/leaf endophytes. Maggini 2019
Optimal growth condition for Echinacea purpurea under drought stress (50% water depletion for 2 years) included fertilization with 80 kg N/ha (from a biofertilizer containing Azotobacter and Azospirillum), as well as nitroxin and 40 kg nitrogen treatments, according to a study conducted in Iran. Jalil Sheshbahreh 2019
Increased levels of soil organic matter were found to significantly enhance macrophage activation of Echinacea purpurea root extracts, with a change in soil organic matter content from 5.6% to 67.4% resulting in a 4.2-fold increase in macrophage activation potential. Haron 2019
A study of the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl PAHs, and toxic metals in soils by Echinacea purpurea roots concluded that PAHs increased over time in greenhouses while under field conditions contaminants increased significantly. Pretorius 2018
Evaluation of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides content in the aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea found that the highest yield of both types of compounds is achieved at the wilting stage, while roots should be harvested no earlier than 1 week after the aerial parts harvest. Thomsen 2018
A combination of phosphorus fertilizer, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium was found to alleviate the effects of drought stress on Echinacea purpurea, including increasing the content of certain nutrients. Attarzadeh 2018
Bacterial endophytic and rhizospheric communities isolated from Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia were characterized by different antibiotic resistance phenotypes, as well as by antibiotic production. Maggini 2018
Inoculation with plant endophytic bacteria was found to modulate alkylamide production in E. purpurea leaves and stems. Maggini 2017
Antimicrobial properties of Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Echinacea purpurea, are summarized. Presta 2017
The endophytic fungal community associated with Echinacea purpurea was characterized. Carvalho 2016
Antagonistic interactions between bacteria isolated from the ecological niches of Echinacea purpurea (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) were investigated. Maida 2016
Salt tolerance of Echinacea purpurea was assessed. Salt stress suppressed the germination of the seeds. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2015
Inbreeding in fragmented Echinacea angustifolia populations was associated with lower photosynthetic rates, survival, and fitness, and changes in other resource capturing parameters; however, herbivore damage did not differ signifantly between inbred and outbred individuals. Kittelson 2015
Purple coneflower was pollinated more effectively than cucumber or eggplant, in an experimental small, urban garden, due to being visited by a wider variety of pollinators. Lowenstein 2015
Echinacea purpurea showed potential for phytoremediation of PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)-contaminated soils. Liu 2015
Composition and structure of bacterial communities isolated from stems, leaves, and roots of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia were compared. Pseudomonas, as well as Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp., were the most prominent genera, with changes found between the species. Chiellini 2014
Evidence of antibiotic resistance was found in bacterial communities inhabiting Echinacea purpurea plant organs, which was strongly related to the organ type (26% of total variance). Mengoni 2014
Induction of adventitious and hairy roots in Echinacea spp. and use of their suspension cultures for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives are reviewed. Murthy 2014
Synchronous flowering was more important than distance for effective pollination of Echinacea angustifolia plants. Ison 2014
Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, a relatively uncommon plant growth regulator, increased regeneration rates in tissue cultures of Echinacea purpurea. Chen 2013
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) were found to be the most efficient pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia. Other noteworthy pollinator species included sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae) and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris). Wist 2013
Formation and growth of adventitious roots and accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives were induced in Echinacea pallida tissue cultures by the plant hormone indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 1 mg/L). [Article in Chinese] Wu 2012
Gibberellic acid (a plant hormone) was shown to increase secondary metabolite production in Echinacea purpurea hairy root cultures. Abbasi 2012
Echinacea purpurea decreased petroleum hydrocarbon levels in pots filled with petroleum-contaminated soil, collected from one of the biggest oil fields in China, by 46.74%, without significant reduction in biomass. Oil presence in the plant tissues was confirmed. Liu 2012
Various aspects of increasing the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation in adventitious root culture systems are reviewed, with scale-up cultures of Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea used as examples. Baque 2012
Relatively high (up to an 83x increase) seed germination rates were achieved in Echinacea pallida by in-dark seed selection and breeding. Qu 2012
Exposure of Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures (usually grown in the dark) to light increased the levels of certain caffeic acid derivatives and reduced those of others, specifically inhibiting rhamnosylation of caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides. Guarnerio 2012
The hydrodynamics and mass transfer behavior were studied using hairy root culture of Echinacea purpurea in an airlift bioreactor. The results should provide insight for bioreactor design and process intensification of large-scale hairy root culture. Liu 2011
Fragmentation of Echinacea angustifolia populations may increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphids. Foliar levels of phosphorus (P) were found to inversely correlate with aphid loads, while positively relating to leaf nitrogen, early in the season. Ridley 2011
The effects of virus and phytoplasma infections on the yield of secondary metabolites (caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, and essential oil) in Echinacea purpurea were assessed. Pellati 2011
The effects of vole herbivory on Echinacea purpurea growth and biomass production in a prairie habitat were studied. Sullivan 2011
Reproduction of Echinacea angustifolia in a fragmented prairie habitat was reduced due to pollen limitation increase but not due to changes in pollinator visits, which were increased for isolated plants despite reproduction decreases. Wagenius 2010
Microscopic features of transverse sections and powders of Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida and E. purpurea were identified. [Article in Chinese] Li 2009
The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the physiology and biochemistry of Echinacea purpurea was examined. It was hypothesized that AM colonization enhances the growth and secondary metabolism in E. purpurea. Araim 2009
The effects of both biparental inbreeding and crossing of Echinacea angustifolia between remnant populations on progeny survival and reproduction in the field over the first eight years was quantified. Wagenius 2009
Foliar application of elicitors on the immunostimulating medical plant purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench.) grown on soil was used to increase the content of biologically active phenolics. Kuzel 2009
The methodologies of induction of adventitious roots from explants of Echinacea purpurea, propagation of adventitious roots in suspension cultures, estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities are described. Paek 2009
It is shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization could play an important role in optimizing the growth of Echinacea purpurea by inducing the production of secondary phytomedicinal metabolites. Araim 2009
Experiments comparing the activity of freeze-dried, freshly harvested Echinacea plants to those harvested and dried using various commercially relevant conditions suggest that postharvesting procedures do not substantially contribute to the variation observed in the commercial material. Tamta 2008
Seedlings of Echinacea purpurea were grown in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 native grassland species; seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass. Dybzinski 2008
The embryo of Echinacea angustifolia was used for explants to induce shoots and callus on MS medium. The plantlets could produce from embryo directly and the shoots could be induced to form fasciculate buds through the callus differentiation. [Article in Chinese] Ma 2007
The effects of both media optimization and replenishment strategies were adopted to achieve improved production of Echinacea purpurea adventitious roots and caffeic acid derivatives. Wu 2007a
Adventitious roots of Echinacea purpurea were cultured in airlift bioreactors (balloon-type & drum-type bubble bioreactors) using Murashige & Skoog medium with 2 mg indole butyric acid l(-1) & 50 g sucrose l(-1) for the production of chichoric, chlorogenic & caftaric acids. Wu 2007
Exposure of leaf explants of Echinacea purpurea to a medium containing thidiazuron results in undifferentiated cell proliferation and differentiated growth as mixed shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Jones 2007
The use of ethylenediurea to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) was determined. Szantoi 2007
The effects of light on growth rate and caffeic acid derivative biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Echinacea purpurea were assessed. Abbasi 2007
The effects of local flowering plant density on pollination and of population size on mate availability in a common, self-incompatible purple coneflower, Echinacea angustifolia, growing in fragmented prairie habitat was investigated. Wagenius 2007
The kinetics of growth, the uptake of macronutrients, and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives of caffeic acid derivatives were investigated in heterotrophically cultured hairy roots of Echinacea purpurea for a 50 day period. Liu 2006
Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. Zheng 2006
A method of the transformed hairy roots cultures of Echinacea purpurea was established by infecting different types of explants with three type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4, R1601 and R1000). Wang 2006
Reproduction in a three-year study of Echinacea angustifolia, purple coneflower, growing in a fragmented prairie landscape was investigated. Wagenius 2006
A plant regeneration system from the isolated protoplasts of Echinacea purpurea L. using an alginate solid/liquid culture is described. Pan 2006
The cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea. Romero 2005
Callus of Echinacea augustifolia was used for isolation and the factors influencing the process of protoplasts preparation researched, results indicating that it was easy to isolate protoplast from buff-green Callus in E. augustifolia & it looked like granule with symmetrical character. Liqing 2005
The finding that ethethon promoted Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida seed germination in darkness could be useful in the cultivation of these two species. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). Qu 2004
The flowering response of Echinacea purpurea cv. Bravado found to increase with increasing duration of both the short day & long day treatments of photoperiods. Heide 2004
Physical & chemical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), gibberellic acid & sound stimulation were found to enhance the germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds. Chuanren 2004
Four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi including Glomus mosseae, found to enhance survival rates and growth of Micropropagated plantlets of Echinacea pallida. Lata 2003
The highest amounts of cichoric acid were measured from the older, wild inflorescences of Echinacea pallida var.sanguinea, whereas the highest quantities of the alkamides 1-3 and 7 were present in roots of wild and transplanted E. purpurea. Binns 2002
A light-dependent response operating through light-labile phytochrome in which flowering is inhibited by an LD, and a light-stable phytochrome response in which flowering is promoted by a short-night are the 2 mechanisms proposed for the flowering behavior of Echinacea purpurea. Runkle 2001
Pharmacognostical studies of Echinacea purpurea were carried out by botanical analysis, microscopic analysis and physicochemical analysis. [Article in Chinese]. Zhang 2000
[The classification of therapeutically used species of the genus Echinacea]. Heinzer 1988
On the presence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (Marmor Cucumeris H.)On Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench. [No abstract; article in German] Muehle 1964
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Soaring Bear, Ph.D.
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
December 2022