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Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
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Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
Clinical Trials
Twenty-seven immune health supplements, including echinacea, were systematically reviewed from randomized controlled studies to evaluate potential benefits and/or harms in healthy individuals and those facing stressors and whether they can help in maintaining health, resisting, or bouncing back more quickly. Crawford 2022
In a single-blind randomized controlled trial with reproductive-aged women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (N=153), Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea combined with vaginal yyaluronic acid significantly increased HPV lesion clearance, reducing overall diagnosis and histological, colposcopic, and vaginal parameters after 6 and 12 months. Riemma 2022
In a randomized controlled study with120 healthy volunteers, Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce®) exhibited antiviral effects and reduced the risk of viral respiratory tract infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Kolev 2022
A review of two randomized placebo-controlled studies showed echinacea extract (Echinaforce®) pre-administered for four months significantly reduced the incidence of enveloped virus infections, significantly lowered respiratory symptoms during infections, and significantly reduced viral loads in adults (N=755) and children (N=203) with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nicolussi 2022
In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (N=114), a combination extract including echinacea significantly decreased number of superficial inflammatory lesions, mean desquamation scores, sebum secretion rate, and Cutibacterium acnes and S. aureus, while significant increasing Staphylococcus epidermidis in subjects with mild to moderate acne. Rinaldi 2022
In a randomized, blinded, controlled trial in children 4 to 12 years old, Echinaforce® Junior tablets (400 mg Echinacea purpurea extract 3x/day for two × two months separated by a one-week treatment break) significantly prevented influenza, helped prevent viral respiratory tract infections, and reduced antibiotic usage. Ogal 2021
In a randomized controlled study with 100 suspected COVID-19 outpatients, a combination of echinacea and Zingiber officinale in addition to standard treatment (hydroxychloroquine) resulted in significantly improved coughing, dyspnea, and muscle pain compared to standard treatment alone. No significant difference was seen on other symptoms or in hospitalization rate. Mesri 2021
In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (N=108), administration of an Echinacea angustifolia extract (EP107) twice daily for 6 weeks did not improve the primary outcome measure of anxiety, but improved the secondary measures of positive and negative affect and emotional wellbeing, suggesting antidepressant effects, in adults with mild-to-moderately severe anxiety. Lopresti 2021
A review of preclinical and clinical studies focuses on the potential of echinacea in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and includes studies on acute and subacute toxicity. Xu 2021
In a randomized controlled trial with children 4-12 years (N=201), an Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce® Junior) administered 3 times/day for 4 months decreased the number of viral respiratory tract infection episodes by 32.5%, including a 76.3% reduction in antibiotic courses, and significantly lowered incidents of influenza and enveloped virus infections compared to vitamin C. Ogal 2021
A systematic review and meta-analysis of human trials of functional foods, beverages, and supplements claiming to alleviate symptoms of air travel included one trial with Echinacea. Chan 2021
In a randomized controlled trial with suspected COVID-19 outpatients (N=100), a combination of Echinacea and Zingiber officinale co-administered with hydroxychloroquine significantly improved cough, dyspnea, and muscle pain compared to hydroxychloroquine alone. Hospitalization rates in the combination and hydroxychloroquine groups were 2% and 6%, respectively, but not statistically different. Mesri 2021
Administration of Echinaforce Junior tablets (1200-2000 mg of Echinacea extract, 3-5 times daily) reduced cold episode duration, average episode lasting 7.5 days, and decreased antibiotic prescription rate due to effective control of the symptoms, in children (4-12 yo, N = 79). Weishaupt 2020
In a 2-month comparative study, a toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate, xylitol, and extracts of Chamomilla recutita, Arnica montana, Echinacea purpurea, and Salvia officinalis showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects, compared to the control toothpaste. Kharaeva 2020
A standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (40 mg twice daily, in tablets, for 7 days) decreased state anxiety scores compared to placebo in human volunteers, as well as trait anxiety scores in subjects with high baseline anxiety. Haller 2019
In a randomized controlled study (N=63), an ocular gauze containing Echinacea angustifolia significantly reduced the risk of secondary infections in newborns presenting with signs of conjunctivitis. Bresesti 2019
A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials concluded echinacea may have a preventative effect on incidence of upper respiratory tract infections; no evidence for effect on duration of upper respiratory tract infections was found, as well as no apparent short term risk. David 2019
In a prospective single-arm study, oral administration of a preparation of dry extracts of Echinacea purpurea roots and E. angustifolia was found to progressively decrease the relapse rates of genital condylomatosis in both men and women over 25 years old. De Rosa 2019
In a randomly grouped, matched-pair, double-blind study (n=24), supplementation with Echinacea purpurea (8 g/d for 6 weeks) did not increase serum erythropoietin or erythropoietic status markers in recreationally active males with above average aerobic fitness. Martin 2019
A meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials including 3135 children aged 3 months to 18 years found that in children under 6 years of age combined supplementation with vitamin C and echinacea is more effective than vitamin C alone in reducing the duration of upper respiratory tract infections. Vorilhon 2018
Echinacea-based mouthwash decreased oral microflora in intensive care unit patients under tracheal intubation, similarly to a chlorhexidine solution. Safarabadi 2017
No clear evidence for the efficacy of Echinacea for the treatment and prevention of respiratory tract infections in children was found, in a systematic review and meta-analysis of 4 trials. Anheyer 2017
An Echinacea purpurea alkylamide-containing cream increased epidermal lipid levels, and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human keratinocytes, potentially alleviating symptoms of atopic eczema, in vitro and in a clinical setting. Oláh 2017
Administration of a combination of extracts of Zingiber officinale (25 mg) and Echinacea angustifolia (5 mg) for 30 days improved disease score (Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring), quality of life, and decreased knee circumference in subjects with knee osteoarthritis, poorly responding to NSAIDs. Rondanelli 2017
Intake of echinacea for 7 days at a standard recommended dose did not decrease platelet aggregation of clot formation in healthy volunteers, using multiple electrode aggregometer and viscoelastic rotational thromboelastometer to obtain the data. Only fish oil (1260 mg of n-3) had the effect. Bagge 2016
Echinacea Formula (Echinaforce® Hotdrink): Effects of a Proprietary Echinacea Formula Compared With Oseltamivir in the Early Treatment of Influenza. [No abstract] Ross 2016
Echinaforce (a standardized Echinacea purpurea extract) was found to be safe and effective for prevention of the common cold, especially of recurrent infections, when administered over a 4-month period, in "the largest clinical trial to date." Ross 2016
An echinacea-based dietary supplement (8,000 mg/day, for 35 days) was not different from the placebo in the effects on maximal aerobic capacity in endurance-trained women and men, while doubling the dose had a negative effect. Stevenson 2016
Limited evidence of echinacea efficacy in the treatment of cough (as a symptom of upper respiratory tract infections and/or common cold) was found in the meta-analysis and systematic review of clinical trials on a variety of herbal medicinal products. Wagner 2015
A combination of Justicia adhatoda leaf and Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus roots, approved in Scandinavia for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, relieved cough in 18-65 year old patients (n=177) more effectively than placebo. Barth 2015
A single administration of 10 mg of a lipophilic extract of Echinacea angustifolia decreased the expression and plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, while increasing the expression of IL-10, with 3.5-fold improvement in bioavailability, in human volunteers. Dall'Acqua 2015
The efficacy of Echinaforce Hotdrink (A. Vogel Bioforce AG, Switzerland), administered for 10 days, in the treatment of influenza was found comparable to that of oseltamivir (5 days), with recovery achieved by 1.5% of the patients vs. 4.1% after 1 day, and 50.2% vs. 48.8% after 5 days, respectively. Rauš 2015
A combination of alpha lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid (GLA), anti-oxidants, and Echinacea angustifolia appeared to provide benefit in the reduction of carpal tunnel syndrome, compared to shock wave therapy. Notarnicola 2015
Safety and effectiveness of a homeopathic drug (Contramutan N Saft), prepared from Eupatorium perfoliatum and Echinacea angustifolia, were assessed in children and adults with symptoms of common cold. Michalsen 2015
Supplementation with Echinacea products may be associated with a small reduction in cold incidence, according to the comment to a Cochrane review. Karsch-Völk 2015
Use of Echinacea extracts was associated with reduced risk of recurrent respiratory infections (RR 0.649, 95% CI 0.545-0.774), especially in highly susceptible individuals, with ethanolic extracts (vs. pressed juices) and increased dosing during acute episodes appearing to be more effective. Schapowal 2015
The efficacy of Echinacea compositum S, among other preparations, was studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Article in Ukrainian] Il'nyts'kyĭ 2014
Combination treatment with Erbisol, Lymphomyosot, and Echinacea compositum C reduced the levels of circulating immune complexes in the serum, promoted persistent clinical remission and liquidation of disease manifestations, in women with with fatigue syndrome. [Article in Ukrainian] Udovika 2014
A "botanical supplement" delivering "a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea" (8 g/day), administered for 30 days, did not significantly affect the maximum aerobic capacity in apparently healthy, recreationally active college students. Bellar 2014
The analysis of 24 clinical trials, studying the effects of mono-preparations of Echinacea and encompassing 4631 participants, concluded that the products do not provide benefit for the treatment of common cold, while the results in prophylaxis trials are of questionable clinical relevance. Karsch-Völk 2014
Administration of a syrup containing 100 mg of an Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea; 4.7 mg echinacoside, 8.0 mg 20,000-Da polysaccharide) once daily for 1 month up-regulated IL-2 and IL-8 mRNA levels, and down-regulated those of TNF-α and IL-6, in healthy humans. Dapas 2014
Research on the complex botanical formulation SAMITAL (Indena SpA, Milan, Italy), containing extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus, Macleaya cordata, and Echinacea angustifolia and designed for the treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients, is reviewed. Morazzoni 2013
Echinacea purpurea supplementation (8000 mg/d for 6 weeks) did not significantly affect maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hematocrit or hemoglobin in trained endurance runners. Baumann 2013
Clinical evidence was found in this review for the efficacy of chronic (i.e., more than one day) use of Echinacea spp. in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Sarris 2013
Efficacy and safety of Echinaforce, a standardized extract of Echinacea purpurea, in respiratory tract infections, including clinical data, are upheld in this review. Schapowal 2013
An Echinacea angustifolia extract (40 mg/day) decreased State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores within 3 days in human subjects. The same extract ameliorated anxiety and contextual conditioned fear in rat models, showing no lethality or behavioral side effects at up to 3000 mg/kg. Haller 2013
An Echinacea purpurea extract (95% herb, 5% root; for 4 months) reduced the total number of cold episodes, pain-killer medicated episodes, inhibited virally confirmed colds, and especially prevented enveloped virus infections, showing maximal effects on recurrent infections, in adults. Jawad 2012
Oral supplementation with echinacea (8,000 mg/day for 4 weeks) increased erythropoietin levels (at days 7, 14, and 21), VO2max, and running economy in men. Whitehead 2012
A highly standardized extract of Echinacea angustifolia roots (Polinacea) showed promising effects on the immune response in human subjects following influenza vaccination, in a preliminary study. Di Pierro 2012
Administration of echinacea root extracts (4.4 mg alkylamides) marginally reduced the incidence of respiratory symptoms in air travelers, compared to placebo. Tiralongo 2012
An Arnica/Echinacea powder, applied twice daily, was found effective and safe in promoting umbilical cord stump detachment in healthy human newborns (n=6323). Perrone 2012
An Echinacea purpurea extract-containing skincare emulsion completely prevented skin nerve-deteriorating effects of ultraviolet light in skin samples taken from healthy patients. Fonseca 2012
Efficacy of fluconazole therapy with personalized regimen of probiotics, Echinacea purpurea, and beta-glucan in subjects with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was assessed. Murina 2011
The effects of blinding type and placebo on the response to echinacea treatment by human subjects experiencing common cold symptoms were explored. Barrett 2011
An ethanolic extract of fresh Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce) reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels by up to 24%, and increased IL-10 (by 13%), as well as MCP-1 and IL-8 levels, in human volunteers, compared to baseline. The effects depended on cortisol and self-reported stress levels. Ritchie 2011
An immunostimulant preparation containing Echinacea angustifolia, arabinogalactan, acerola, beta-glucan and zinc (Imoviral® Junior) improved the quality of life and reduced the frequency of acute episodes in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis or otitis media. Minetti 2011
Supplementation with a nutraceutical containing echinacea, probiotics, and other compounds for 4 months, combined with standard therapy, reduced the number of cutaneous warts, leading to remission in 86% of the patients (compared with 54.5% by standard care alone), in an open-label trial. Cassano 2011
A natural formula containing 120 mg of an echinacea extract, as well as garlic, Nigella sativa oil, Panax ginseng, vitamin C, and zinc, given for 14 days to patients with common cold symptoms, reduced the duration and severity of the symptoms, compared to placebo. Yakoot 2011
Echinacea purpurea was found to be the most consistently useful variety of complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of common cold, with 5 out of 6 trials showing efficacy, according to the review. Nahas 2011
Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C (p.o. for 2 weeks), but not Echinacea purpurea alone, ameliorated exacerbation of chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease by upper respiratory tract infection in human subjects. Isbaniah 2011
Dried echinacea root (10.2 g during the first 24 hours after the onset of illness and 5.1 g during each of the next 4 days) did not significantly affect the severity and duration of illness in human subjects with common cold. Barrett 2010
Topical application of Echinacea purpurea extract in cream and gel bases (for 1 month) improved skin hydration and reduced wrinkles in healthy humans. The shelf lives of the formulations were estimated to be only 2-4 months, which could be improved by other additives. Yotsawimonwat 2010
A standardized Echinacea extract demonstrates efficacy in the prevention and treatment of colds in athletes. [No abstract] Ross 2010
Oral echinacea treatment was less effective than oral propolis as a treatment for different types of warts in humans (n=135), in a single-blind, randomized, 3-months trial. Zedan 2009
An echinacea/sage preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats in 154 patients at least 12 years old. Schapowal 2009
Reviews of Echinacea human trials compare preparations with very different compositions. Recent meta-analyses using specific criteria for correcting problems of pooling of data from different trials are evaluated and discussed here. Woelkart 2008
In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with specific form of echinacea used in study does not decrease risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. Wahl 2008
It is suggested that the palatal adhesive tablets containing herbal formulation which includes sage, Echinacea, Lavender and Mastic gum may serve as an effective means of treatment for patients complaining of oral malodor. Sterer 2008
Prophylactic treatment with commercially available Echinacea purpurea capsules did not significantly alter the frequency of upper respiratory tract symptoms compared with placebo use in 90 volunteers. O'Neil 2008
A meta-analysis was carried out in 14 unique studies for evaluating the effect of echinacea on the incidence and duration of the common cold. The published evidence supports echinacea's benefit in decreasing the incidence and duration of the common cold. Shah 2007
A prospective cohort study of clinicians conducted before & after an on-line curriculum about herbs & dietary supplements in winter-spring, 2005 shows the use of supplements traditionally used to treat colds decreased: vitamin C(34% to 27%), zinc(13% to 10%)echinacea(7% to 5%, P < 0.05 for all 3). Kemper 2007
Benefit-harm tradeoff interviews assessed sufficiently important difference in terms of overall severity reduction using evidence-based simple-language scenarios for 4 common cold treatments: vitamin C, the herbal medicine echinacea, zinc lozenges, and the unlicensed antiviral pleconaril. Barrett 2007
A review on use of supplements for maintenance of health among athletes revealed that use of selected supplements varied widely: multivitamin (72.7%), vitamin C (70.4%), echinacea (30.8%), iron (29.8%), magnesium (11.0%) and ginseng (8.3%). Petróczi 2007
In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the liquid herbal drug EPs was well tolerated, significantly reduced the severity of symptoms and shortened the duration of the common cold compared with placebo. Lizogub 2007
The rationale and methodology of a trial assessing placebo effects, echinacea, and doctor-patient interaction in the common cold was described. Barrett 2007
In a study conducted on 24 men echinacea supplementation resulted in an increase in erythropoietin and interleukin 3 but did not significantly alter red blood cells, hemoglobin, or hematocrit. Whitehead 2007
A phase 0, double-blind, randomized pilot study showed that CD25 expression on T cells was increased for subjects ingesting Echinacea at 24 h with notable increases in activation from Astragalus & Glycyrrhiza. CD25 expression remains elevated with daily use of Echinacea for at least 7 days. Zwickey 2007
A single 350-mg dose of Echinacea purpurea had no effect on electrocardiographic and blood pressure measurements of healthy volunteers. Shah 2007
A study on 32 subjects with upper respiratory tract infection showed that Echinacea may attenuate the mucosal immune suppression known to occur with intense exercise and reduce the duration of upper respiratory tract infection that subjects incur. Hall 2007
Various extracts of Echinacea purpurea were prepared and used to treat upper respiratory tract infections in children aged 2-12 years and administered for 10 days in an open-label trial. No allergic or adverse reaction occurred and no safety issues arose. Saunders 2007
Quantification of herbal remedy usage in a presurgical population shows that of 1057 patients, 9% were taking one or more of the following herbal remedies known to interact with the perioperative period: valerian, ginseng, ginkgo, St John's wort, echinacea and ephedra. [Article in French] Baillard 2007
Systemic echinacea appears safe and effective in the control of low-grade autoimmune idiopathic uveitis in 51 patients. Neri 2006
The effects of the dietary supplement Echinacea purpurea on aerobic and anaerobic bacteria common to the human gastrointestinal tract was determined in 15 human subjects & showed that Echinacea purpurea supplementation stimulates select groups of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Hill 2006
A multicenter study to investigate the tolerability & efficacy of a tablet formulation of Echinacea purpurea extract in 80 subjects actively involved in sports found that 97.5% of the investigators rated the tolerability as V.good/ good & 75% of investigators rated the efficacy as V.good/good. Schoop 2006
Important methodologic components of randomized controlled trials of herbal medicines like echinacea, ginkgo, St. John's wort, and kava are incompletely reported including allocation concealment, method used to generate the allocation sequence, and whether an intention-to-treat analysis was used. Gagnier 2006
The current body of evidence supporting the use of Echinacea to reduce URI symptoms and improve quality of life (QoL) was reviewed showing that various facets of QoL may be improved with Echinacea. Gillespie 2006
Comparative analysis of clinical efficacy of 3 antihomotoxic homeopathic preparations (Traumeel S, Engistol and Echinacea compositum S) with non-specific immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects found Traumeel S had maximal anti-inflammatory effect. [Article in Russian] Grudianov 2006
The relations among questionnaires General health short form, Jackson cold scale, Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey & Laboratory-assessed biomarkers which included interleukin, nasal neutrophil count polymorpho-nuclear neutrophils, mucus weight, viral titre & seroconversion were studied. Barrett 2006
A study to investigate whether nutrition can limit exercise-induced immunodepression indicated that further research is needed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants and dietary immunostimulants such as probiotics and echinacea on exercise-induced immune impairment. Gleeson 2006
The ability of three herbs, Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra, on on CD69 expression and immune cells activation in human subjects were assessed in this pilot clinical study which showed that the 3 herbal tinctures stimulated human immune cells. Brush 2006
[Does treatment with Echinacea purpurea effectively shorten the course of upper respiratory tract infections in children?] Koenig 2006
A meta-analysis comparing three suitable studies suggests that standardized extracts of Echinacea were effective in the prevention of symptoms of the common cold after clinical inoculation, compared with placebo. Schoop 2006
Update of 2000 Cochrane evidence-based systematic review of Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold found some evidence that preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea might be effective for the early treatment of colds in adults. Linde 2006
Complementary and alternative medicine use by 108 patients with advanced malignancies enrolled onto phase I clinical trials revealed that Green tea (29.8% [25 of 84]), echinacea (13.1% [11 of 84]), and essiac (9.5% [8 of 84]) were the most popular. Dy 2005
Estimation of "sufficiently important difference" using benefit harm tradeoff in the case of common cold shows that the echinacea based scenario, mean SID was estimated as 36.8 h, with 105 favoring and 41 (9%) rejecting treatment, regardless of duration benefit. Barrett 2005
[The bloom is off echinacea's rose. The herbal remedy for colds hasn't looked so promising in recent clinical trials.]. [No authors listed] 2005
Echinacea supplementation in 11 healthy individuals found to invoke an immune response through the enhanced fold increase in leucocyte hsp70 expression, increased white cell counts & and improved erythrocyte antioxidant defences. Agnew 2005
An evaluation of E.angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections in 437 volunteers indicates that extracts of Echinacea root, alone or in combination, do not have clinically significant effects on infection with a rhinovirus or on the clinical illness that results from it. Turner 2005
The clinical efficacy of KanJang oral solution, which consists of extract of Echinacea purpurea, was greater than Echinacea mixture in a controlled, double blind, randomized trial on patients with non-complicated acute respiratory tract infections. Narimanian 2005
A non-randomised, multi-centre, 2-armed health services research study, data of 995 chronic recurrent respiratory disease patients, 782 treated with echinacin-, 213 with standard-cohort shows that even non-prescription drugs can have clinical and economic benefits. [Article in German] Heinen-Kammerer 2005
[Echinacea, vitamin C, the common cold, and blinding.]. Hemila 2005
Among 282 subjects aged 18-65 years with a history of 2 or more colds, a total of 128 subjects contracted a common cold (59 used echinacea, 69 placebo) & the total daily symptom scores were found to be 23.1% lower in the echinacea group than in placebo. Goel 2004
[Echinacea trial.]. Blumenthal 2004
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the ability of Echinacea purpurea to prevent infection with rhinovirus(Rv)type 39 in 48 healthy adults revealed that administration of echinacea before & after exposure to RV did not decrease the rate of infection. Sperber 2004
Comparision of natural product use between primary care and nephrology patients revealed Echinacea was the most common product taken by those patients (26%) & more primary care patients took Echinacea compared with nephrology clinic patients (26% vs 12%). Grabe 2004
Echinacea at 100 mg dose 3 times daily reduces the symptoms and duration of the common cold in 128 patients. Yale 2004
The most common herbal medications taken by 500 hepatitis C patients were milk thistle (12.2%), ginseng (4.6%), and echinacea (3.0%). Siddiqui 2004
[Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial.]. Barrett 2004
Data analyzed on 707 upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in 407 children, including 337 URIs treated with echinacea & 370 with placebo revealed that Echinacea purpurea was not effective in treating patients of 2 to 11 years old but was associated with an increased risk of rash. Taylor 2003
Administration of 1gm of encapsulated mixture of unrefined Echinacea purpurea herb (25%) and root (25%) and E. angustifolia root (50%) provided no detectable benefit or harm in 148 college students who had the common cold, compared with placebo. Barrett 2002
Among 195 patients attending the Memory Disorders Clinic at Toronto, 52 were 'current or past users', of herbal medicines and the most frequently used included ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) [39 users], garlic (n = 10), glucosamine sulphate (n = 9) & echinacea (n = 8). Dergal 2002
The results of this pilot study, with matched historical controls, suggest that polysaccharide fraction isolated from Echinacea purpurea cell cultures might be effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. The efficacy and safety should be investigated in further studies. Melchart 2002
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-week clinical trial, the increased complement properdin indicated one aspect of immune system stimulation in patients treated with either Echinacea purpurea/E. angustifolia or E. purpurea/E. angustifolia plus larch arabinogalactan. Kim 2002
The "immune stimulation" by Echinacea purpurea observed in vitro and after parenteral administration are not confirmed in healthy humans after oral intake. Schwarz 2002
Review of methodological quality of randomized controlled trials in three areas of complementary medicine i.e. homeopathy, herbal medicine (Hypericum for depression, Echinacea for common cold), and acupuncture found trials often have methodological weaknesses. Linde 2001
Over a one-year period, 50 patients took part in the study each receiving 6 months' placebo and 6 months' Echinaforce (Echinacea purpurea extract). No statistically significant benefit could be detected in this study in the treatment of frequently recurrent genital herpes. Vonau 2001
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, Echinaceae purpureae herba (Echinacin, EC31J0) was well tolerated and clinically effective in alleviating symptoms more rapidly than placebo in patients with a common cold. Schulten 2001
A randomized, blinded, controlled trial will be performed to determine the efficacy of herbal therapy and craniosacral manipulation for the prevention of acute otitis media in children with recurrent otitis media. Currently (6/01) recruiting.
Survey of alternative medicine use in presurgical patients indicates that 22% of presurgical patients reported using herbal remedies, & the most commonly used compounds, from highest to lowest, included echinacea, gingko biloba, St. John's wort, garlic & ginseng. Tsen 2000
Treatment with Echinacea Plus tea at early onset of cold or flu symptoms (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) in 95 subjects was found to be effective for relieving these symptoms in a shorter period of time than placebo. Lindenmuth 2000
A prospective controlled study of 206 women with pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to Echinacea suggests that gestational use of echinacea during organogenesis is not associated with an increased risk for major malformations. Gallo 2000
Applications of immunomodulator complex including tincture of Echinacea Purpurea in 31 patients with purulent wound of soft tissues produced more rapid cleansing and healing of the wound. [Article in Russian] Potii 2000
Echinacea resulted in a non-significant reduction (compared with placebo) of infection (44 vs. 57%) and illness (36 vs. 43%) in experimental rhinovirus colds Turner 2000
The consensus of the studies reviewed in this article is that echinacea is effective in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms, but that this effect is noted only with certain preparations of echinacea Percival 2000
50 healthy volunteers of both sexes were subdivided and received either Eleutherococcus senticosus or Echinacea (40 drops) for 30 days. No changes were seen in total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose Szolomicki 2000
[Information on additional Echinacea trials.]. Ertel 1999
Analysis of human sperm motility parameters on a Hamilton-Thorn analyzer after 1, 4, 24, and 48 hr at 37 degrees C in the presence of herbs indicated that high-concentration saw-palmetto, echinacea, or gikgo inhibited motility at 24 and 48 hr. Ondrizek 1999
Evidence from published reports of all blinded placebo-controlled randomized trials of any Echinacea formulation used as a treatment or for the prevention of upper respiratory infection (URI) suggests that Echinacea may be beneficial for the early treatment of acute URIs. Barrett 1999
Several comparative clinical trials carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum showed that they had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics & had simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. Wagner 1999
Results of a clinical trial in 263 patients of a commercially available fixed combination herbal remedy (Radix echinaceae, Radix baptisiae, Herba thujae) showed the superiority of the herbal remedy over placebo (p < 0.05). Henneicke-von Zepelin 1999
109 patients were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL fluid extract of Echinacea purpurea or 4 mL placebo-juice twice a day. Side effects were observed in 20% of the Echinacea group and in 13% of the placebo group. Grimm 1999
246 healthy, adult volunteers caught a common cold and took 3 times daily 2 tablets of either Echinaforce, Echinacea purpurea, or a different Echinacea purpurea radix preparation or placebo. Brinkeborn 1999
302 well people randomly divided to taking ethanolic extract of roots of E. purpurea or E angustifolia or placebo for 12 weeks. Adverse effects were reported by 18, 10 and 11, respectively. Treatment groups believed that they had more benefit. Melchart 1998
Mosquito bite treated with a homeopathic gel of E angustifolia, Ledum palustre, Urtica urens and Hamamelis extract in a double blind trial with 100 people, reduced erythema but lacked itch relief Hill 1996
Extract from E angustifolia, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Thuja occidentalis for 4 weeks to 23 tumor patients gave no change in cytokines IL-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma Elsasser-Beile 1996
Review of controlled clinical trials using extracts of E. purpurea or E. pallida Dorsch 1996
Review of 5 studies (total of 134 healthy volunteers) concerning the effect of different Echinacea preparations on polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes Melchart 1995
History of Record
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
December 2022