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Scientific Name:
Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida
Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Common Name:
echinacea
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide mitigated acetaminophen-induced overdose in mice, including ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress, mainly via Parkin-dependent autophagy. Yu 2022
By regulating glial cell activation, improving synapse-related protein expression levels, and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, echinacea provided neuroprotection in mice with memory and learning disorders. Wang 2022
Echinacea purpurea administered for 3 weeks to rats with potassium dichromate-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity, improved kidney function and exerted nephroprotective effects by suppressing inflammatory reaction and cell apoptosis, improving the redox state, and ameliorating the performance of kidney tissue architecture. Karhib 2022
Through the gut-liver axis, Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide reversed alcohol-induced disturbances in gut microbiota, promoted n-butyric acid production, improved alterations in hepatic metabolites in mice with liver disease. Jiang 2022
Oral administration of Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract nanoparticles in chitosan-silica nanoparticles ameliorated pain and reduced proteoglycan loss in cartilage in obese male rats, as well as decreased leptin, cytokines, MMP expression, NF-κB levels, and iNOS production while increasing collagen II expression. Johnson 2022
Echinacoside suppressed ovarian cancer tumor growth in mice and concentration-dependently reduced the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells while promoting apoptosis in vitro, effects associated with inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Liu 2022
Chicoric acid from echinacea prevented dopaminergic neuronal lesions, motor deficits, and glial activation and reversed interleukin, interferon, and transforming growth factor-beta levels in mice with Parkinson's disease, affects associated with modulation of gene expression in the brain-spleen and brain-gut axes. Wang 2022
Through integration of metabolomics and molecular docking, Echinacea purpurea was found to significantly suppress tumor growth and decrease AFP levels in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as to significantly improve 12 serum metabolites involved in phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism. Xu 2022
Orally administered chicoric acid from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) significantly prevented MPTP-induced motor dysfunctions and death of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, significantly reduced microbial dysbiosis, partially restored gut microbiota, promoted colonic epithelial integrity, restored normal SCFA production, and reduced proinflammatory cytokines in Parkinson's disease mice. Wang 2022
Echinacoside, found in Echinacea spp. and cistanche, provided antidepressant-like effects in mice by activating the AMPAR-Akt/ERK-mTOR pathway in the hippocampus. Chuang 2022
Echinacea purpurea significantly ameliorated hepatocellular tumor growth and migration in mice, potentially targeting 180 genes involved in metabolic and cancer pathways, proteoglycans in cancer, and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Xu 2021
Mice administered Echinacea purpurea extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw orally for two weeks) experienced increased major histocompatibility complex, CD4 T cells, Th1 cytokines, NK cell activity, B cell proliferation, leukocyte counts, and immunoglobulin levels. Park 2021
Administration by gavage of echinacoside dose-dependently inhibited creatinine, urea nitrogen, urine protein, and malondialdehyde and significantly relieved uremia-induced sciatic nerve injury in rats via the cellular pyroptosis pathway, likely by promoting α-Klotho expression. Zhao 2021
Intraperitoneal pre-administration of Echinacea purpurea root hydroalcoholic extract dose-dependently significantly delayed epileptogenesis, reduced mortality rate, and decreased duration in pentylenetetrazol-induced tonic-clonic seizure rats, effects mediated by CB2 receptors. Gholami 2021
Treatment with echinacoside from echinace reverted morphological changes observed in testes with spermatogenesis dysfunction, improved total sperm number, decreased sperm deformity rate, and increased sperm forward motility rate in mice, protected against oxidative damage by activating antioxidant enzymes and MAPK signaling-related factors (p38 and JNK), and singnificantly increased glutathione levels. Zhao 2021
Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides, particularly EPP80, markedly scavenged free radicals in mice, ameliorated alcohol-induced liver injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathways, increased antioxidant activity, upregulated the expression of Occludin and ZO-1, and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that EPP80 can be effective support for preventing and treating alcoholic liver disease. Jiang 2021
Intraperitoneal injection of Echinacea purpurea fresh root tincture significantly decreased T lymphocyte counts in peritoneal lymphoid sheaths in mice. Balčiūnaitė-Murzienė 2021
Echinacoside significantly ameliorated neurobehavioral dysfunction in a mouse model of subacute Parkinson's disease, increasing the expression levels of dopamine as well as its metabolite DOPAC and the pro-survival protein p-AKT, while decreasing those of P62 and α-synuclein. Zhang 2021
Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract, administered for 4 weeks, improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and protected sperm morphology and a testosterone synthesis enzyme protein, as well as provided antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, in diabetic male rats. Mao 2021
Oral administration of crude extracts of Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea roots showed cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonist activities correlated with the content of several alkylamides, which partially mediated analgesic effects of the extracts in a chronic inflammatory pain model in rats. Liu 2021
An extract of Echinacea purpurea was not effective in reducing biofilms generated by oral bacteria; however, a combination of E. purpurea, Salvia officinalis, Lippie citriodora, Mentha piperita, and Matricaria chamomilla significantly healed wound skin of rats in 21 days compared to control and decomposed teeth biofilm in 45 seconds. Fathi 2021
Echinacoside significantly improved cerebral injuries and behavioral deficits in middle cerebral artery occlusion wild-type but not CK2α'+/- mice, enhancing mitochondrial fusion in a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent manner and selectively binding to previously uncharacterized casein kinase 2 subunit α' (CK2α'). Zeng 2021
An echinacea polysaccharide significantly attenuated renal oxidative stress and inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney tissue injury mice, effects associated with the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Shi 2021
Echinacoside (100 mg/kg for 10 days) attenuated alcoholic liver disease and hepatosteatosis, reducing oxidative stress and hepatic lipid accumulation, in a mouse model. Tao 2021
Echinacoside from Echinacea spp. significantly improved cerebral injuries and behavioral deficits in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model by enhancing mitochondrial fusion gene expression in wild-type but not CK2α'+/- mice. Zeng 2021
Echinacoside significantly improved liver injury and insulin resistance in diabetic liver injury mice, as well as helped to reduce blood lipids and blood glucose, effects associated with activated AMPK/SIRT1 signaling and upregulation of PGC-1α, PPARα, and CPT1Aa. Yang 2021
Echinacea polysaccharide significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute kidney injury in mice via downregulation of tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, oxidative stress, and the MAPK signaling pathway. Shi 2021
Echinacoside ameliorated alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis in mice by affecting SREBP1c/FASN pathway via PPARα. Tao 2021
Echinacoside-treated diabetic cardiomyopathy mice showed lower blood glucose and lipid levels, a delay in deterioration in cardiac function, and improved myocardial tissue condition compared to placebo. Zhang 2021
Echinacoside modulated actin remodeling, dramatically decreased amyloid ß production, and significantly improved memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Dai 2020
Echinacoside improved cardiac function and reversed myocardial remodeling, inhibiting myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, and fibrosis, by increasing the expression of the SIRT1/FOXO3a/MnSOD signaling axis and protecting the function of the mitochondria, in a rat model of heart failure. Ni 2020
Echinacea polysaccharides alleviated histological lung damage induced by lipopolysaccharide, including reductions in the numbers of leukocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, in a murine model of lung injury. Zhang 2020
Echinacoside, administered intraperitoneally, reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and improved the responses of pulmonary arteries to noradrenaline and acetylcholine in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Gai 2020
An acidic polysaccharide fraction obtained from Echinacea purpurea significantly reduced lung damage and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a mouse septicemia model. Li 2020
Echinacoside inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell in vitro and in vivo by suppressing the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Tang 2020
A polysaccharide from Echinacea purpurea, named EPPS-3, showed antioxidant effects in vitro and in vivo, and mitigated CCl4-induced hepatic tissue injury. Hou 2020
Oral administration of Echinacea purpurea root extract was shown to partially ameliorate the hematological toxicity of cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant drug, in rats. Khattab 2019
Echinacoside counteracedt dopaminergic neuron injury and improved motor activity in Parkinson's disease mice, possibly by inhibiting activation of microglia and astrocytes, reducing inflammation, promoting neurotrophic factors, and reducing neuron apoptosis. Liang 2019
An Echinacea purpurea extract was found to reverse the long-term toxicity of epichlorohydrin, an industrial carcinogen, on the duodenal epithelial and goblet cells of rats. [Article in Russian] Mirzebasov 2019
Pre-administration with echinacoside from Echinacea angustifolia for 7 days prior to ischemia/reperfusion was shown to preserve retinal morphology, attenuate retinal inflammation and apoptosis, and significantly decrease retinal oxidative stress in rats. Li 2018
Echinacea purpurea extract encapsulated in chitosan/silica nanoparticle improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and FGF 21, and significantly improved testis tissue structure, sperm quality, and DNA integrity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rats. Mao 2018
Polysaccharides from tetraploid Echinacea purpurea were shown to be more effective at promoting lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice than polysaccharides from diploid E. purpurea. Yang 2018
Echinacea purpurea was shown to time-dependently ameliorate deleterious effects of intra-testicular injection of magnetic nanoparticles on insulin-like factor 3 expression and serum testosterone levels in rats. Awaad 2018
Pressed juice of E. purpurea normalized restraint stress-induced reduction in splenocyte proliferation and splenic natural killer cell activities, increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and restored serum cytokine levels, in mice. Park 2017
Cichoric acid (administered at 0.05% in drinking water for 45 days) prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment, neuronal loss, and amyloid β accumulation, normalizing cholinergic function, and suppressed glial overactivation, in the brains of mice. Liu 2017
The chemical profile, oral toxicity (in mice), and anti-inflammatory effects (in rats, at 100-200 mg/kg) of essential oils extracted from the dried leaf and root of Echinacea purpurea, grown in South Africa, were evaluated. Nyalambisa 2017
A hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea (100-200 mg/kg, p.o.), alone or in combination with meglumine antimoniate (glucantime), did not significantly reduce the sizes of the lesions in mice with Leishmania major-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sarkari 2017
Echinacea angustifolia (0.10mg/kg live weight as echinacoside) decreased TNF and NFKB1 expression, and plasma ceruloplasmin levels, and increased plasma levels of Zn in dogs. Sgorlon 2016
Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides attenuated the toxicity of fluorouracil on the small intestinal epithelium in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Safonova 2016
Corrigendum to "Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes" [Vaccine 33 (2015) 2228-2231]. [No abstract] Barbour 2016
An aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea attenuated the Toxoplasma gondii burden in infected mice; however, prolonged treatment was associated with increased numbers of brain cysts in animals infected with the ME49 strain. Gasparotto Junior 2016
A systematic review identified Echinacea purpurea as one of the most promising medicinal herbal agents for the management of respiratory diseases and inflammation in livestock. Ayrle 2016
A preparation of Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria showed anti-angiogenic activity in the skin of mice, grafted with bronchoalveolar lavage cells collected from patients with sarcoidosis. Radomska-Leśniewska 2016
The effects of different Echinacea purpurea-based remedies (IMMUNAL drops, ECHINACEA FORTE drops, IMMUNAL FORTE tablets) on the cellular and humoral immunity of mice were compared. Bałan 2016
Supplementation with Echinacea pallida (3 g/kg-diet) improved the phagocytic activity, while not affecting other blood parameters or vaccination-induced humoral immune response, in rabbits. Kovitvadhi 2016
Supplementation with pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida; 3 g/kg-diet) induced a 47.3% reduction in the basophil cell rate, without affecting other immune, hematological, or reproductive parameters, in female rabbits. Dabbou 2016
Cichoric acid decreased the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in human mast cells, and, at 20 mg/kg, improved the survival of mice subjected to compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock. Lee 2015
Pre- and post-treatment with Echinacea (130 mg/kg po) reduced inflammation, modified serum VEGF and GM-CSF levels, and increased the circulating CD34+ stem cell numbers, thus enhancing neovascularization, in rats with induced myocardial infarction. Abdelmonem 2015
Echinacea complex (Echinacea purpurea; 50mg/kg b.w. for 14 days, po) decreased specific airway resistance and showed anti-inflammatory effects comparable to a control drug in guinea pigs in vivo, also reducing the contractility of smooth muscles of the airway ex vivo. Šutovská 2015
A combination of Echinacea purpurea and Nigella sativa extracts enhanced the humoral (up to 20-fold increase in antibodies), cellular, and cytotoxic immune responses to a hepatitis C virus antigen, in mice. Shawky 2015
Topical application of a herbal patch (PerioPatch; containing extracts of Echinacea and Sambucus nigra), replaced every 12 h, for 3 days improved soft tissue (gingival) wound healing in rats. Chaushu 2015
Supplementation with Echinacea purpurea dried roots (250 mg/day) appeared to enhance the efficacy of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine in ewes. Barbour 2015
A hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea (1 ml twice a day, for 2 months) positively affected the immune function (including phagocytosis, IgM safety factor, and neutrophil and lymphocyte counts), as well as hemoglobin and red blood cell counts, in dogs (n=14) referred to a veterinary clinic. Torkan 2015
Echinacea spp. (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) normalized the disease activity index, and reduced the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, in acetic acid-induced colitis, in rats. Dogan 2014
An aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea (i.p., 2 times/week for 2 weeks) ameliorated bronchopneumonia induced by Pasteurella multocida serotype A in female mice. Rezaie 2014
Echinacea spp. ameliorated acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Dogan 2014
Cichoric acid (4 mg/kg-body-weight), administered for 4 days prior to acute administration of ethanol (6 g/kg-body-weight), attenuated effects of alcohol associated with the development of hepatosteatosis, in female mice. Landmann 2014
Echinacea purpurea root extract, administered for 3 weeks, attenuated the suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), decreased the frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the spleens, and augmented the feeder function of antigen-presenting cells, in mice. Kim 2014
Dietary supplementation with Echinacea purpurea (20-30 g/kg-diet) enhanced the response of zebrafish to a Flavobacterium columnare vaccine. Guz 2014
A "cichoric acid extract" from Echinacea purpurea (8-32 mg/kg, orally, for 28 days) decreased the swelling, restored body weight gain, decreased the thymus and spleen indices, and reduced serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, and PGE-2, in collagen-induced rat model of arthritis. Jiang 2014
Echinacea purpurea flower essential oil showed anti-inflammatory effects in mouse ear edema, rat paw edema, and mouse granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation models (in the latter two by the highest used dose only). Yu 2013
Oral administration of echinacea for 15 days decreased CRP and rheumatoid factor values in rat models of acute and chronic arthritis, increasing, however, synovial membrane proliferation in the acute model, and inducing formation of rough edges with destroyed cartilage and bone in the chronic one. Arafa 2013
An extract of aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 30 days) ameliorated hepatotoxicity of nitrosamine, as shown by decreases in aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, and total and direct bilirubin levels, in rats. Rezaie 2013
An extract of "purple coneflower" (0.1 or 1 g/kg diet for four weeks) did not affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), plasma fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, or cholesterol in mice, despite showing dose-dependent PPARγ-inducing effects in vitro. Schrader 2012
Dietary echinacea (0.75 g/kg diet) increased the expression of TNF-α mRNA in healthy rats after 20 days, with the levels returning to control values after 40 days of administration. Uluışık 2012
Administration of Echinacea angustifolia extracts via diet ameliorated cortisol-induced immune suppression in sheep. Sgorlon 2012
Alkamides from Echinacea purpurea roots suppressed hepatic injury induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine, via up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and inhibition of TNF-α expression, in mice. Hou 2011
Microbial metabolism of caffeic acid was inversely correlated with its anticolitic effects in mice. The mouse model was found useful for modeling metabolism of this compound in the human gut. Ye 2011
A 75% ethanolic extract of Echinacea purpurea (50mg dried weight/kg for 7 days) increased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cell counts by 70%, having no effect at 100mg/kg; an E. angustifolia extract (200mg/kg) increased the counts by 3-fold, while another E.angustifolia was inactive. Ramasahayam 2011
The effects of administration of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia to mice on in vitro proliferative responses of mouse splenic lymphocytes to the T-cell mitogen Phaseolus vulgaris haemagglutinin were studied. Skopińska-Rózewska 2011
Supplementation with echinacea (1% diet) for 4 weeks increased the production of IgA, IgG and IgM in spleen lymphocytes, augmented the induction of IFN-γ and IL-2 by ConA and LPS, while decreasing the TNF-α production, in rats. Yamada 2011
Co-administration of an echinacea extract ameliorated the detrimental effects of an anti-androgenic compound, cyproterone acetate, on the reproductive organs of male rats, with the effects augmented by the additional prophylactic echinacea treatment. Arafa 2010
A fraction of an Echinacea purpurea stem and leaf extract enhanced dendritic cell mobility and their capacity to migrate to peripheral lymph nodes and spleen tissues, via modulation of genes associated with cell motility and chemokine production, in mouse models. Yin 2010
Several echinacea preparations showed anxiolytic-like activity in animal models. The effective doses were much lower than those used in animals for traditional indications; however, most products, except one, had a very narrow effective dose range. Haller 2010
An Echinacea purpurea aerial extract reduced weight loss, systemic and pulmonary KC and IL-10 levels, and systemic IFN-gamma levels in influenza A virus-infected mice. Fusco 2010
Alcohol extract of Echinacea pallida reverses stress-delayed wound healing in mice. An analysis of data showed that the improved wound healing effect of Echinacea in stressed mice is not mediated through modulation of glucocorticoid signaling. Zhai 2009
The effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) was examined which revealed that extract of purple coneflower prevents development of BPH. Skaudickas 2009
Supplementation with sucrose saline with added homeopathic medicine including Echinacea angustifolia in the first seven days post-weaning may be a useful option to reduce weight loss in weaned piglets. Soto 2008
Review on some commonly fed herbs and other functional foods in equine nutrition indicates that Echinacea has been reported as having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Williams 2008
Results obtained using the mouse subcutaneous immunization model with seven botanicals including Echinacea lipophilic, neutral and acidic extracts purported to have immune stimulant effects, are described. Ragupathi 2008
Findings suggestd that Echinacea possesses a protective effect on the liver against the Cyproterone Acetate toxicity by increasing auto immunity and blood picture components in rats. Ali 2008
Experiments on C57LB/6 mice with transplanted Luis lung carcinoma showed that the official Echinacea purpurea preparation did not influence the efficacy of cytostatic therapy. [Article in Russian] Razina 2007
A study on phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice showed that radio-protection efficiency was greater than radio-recovery in hemoglobin level during the first 2 weeks, in lymphoid cell count & TBARs level at 4th week & in SOD activity during first 2 weeks. Abouelella 2007
The prophylactic effects of levamisole and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of phenytoin was compared using 32 pregnant mice which revealed that Echinacea can stimulate immune system more than levamisole and has better prophylactic effect on phenytoin-induced cleft palate. Khaksary Mahabady 2006
The prophylaxis effects of two natural immune-modulating agents, garlic (Allium sativum) extract and Echinovit C preparation and synthetic derivative of 1,2,4-triasole on non-specific immunity indices was evaluated and compared in slaughter turkey-hens. Truchliñski 2006
Ingestion of Melanin, dietary mucosal immune modulator from Echinacea & other botanical supplements, by mice for 4 days increases production ex vivo of interferon-gamma by spleen cells & IgA and interleukin-6 by Peyer's patch cells. Pugh 2005
In vivo, Polinacea, a new standardized hydroethanolic extract from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), showed immune stimulating activity by reducing the Candida albicans induced mortality both in normal and in cyclosporin A-treated mice. Morazzoni 2005
It was found that Echinacea purpurea was used as a feed additive to achieve immune stimulating efficiency in pig production and increase feed-to-gain-conversion. Maass 2005
Regular intake of Echinacea in mice was found be beneficial/ prophylactic, because it maintains in an elevated state, NK cells, prime elements in immunosurveillance against spontaneous-developing tumors, a phenomenon which increases in frequency with progressive aging. Brousseau 2005
The antiandrogenic effect of Echinacea was examined on sexual glands of male rats resulting in significant reduction in percentage of testicle and of body mass, as well as histological changes after 8 weeks of consuming extract of Echinacea purpurea. Skaudickas 2004
Atropa belladonna & Echinacea angustifolia, when prepared in 'accord of potencies', was found to modulate peritoneal inflammatory reaction in mice and have a cytoprotective action on leukocytes. Pedalino 2004
Administration of Echinacea (50 mg/kg of aerial parts) in 12-month-old, healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats over an 8-week period increased circulating total white cell counts and interleukin (IL-2) levels during the final 5 weeks. Cundell 2003
Feeding of usual food ratio plus 50 mg/kg of Echinacea extract for 8 weeks decreased the prostate weight of 3-month old male Wistar rats, increased the number of lymphocyte as well as the alterations of histological structures.[Article in English, Lithuanian] Skaudickas 2003
Results suggest Echinacea purpurea did not enhance growth, exhibit antiviral effects to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, or show any evidence of immune enhancing properties in 120 weaned pigs. Hermann 2003
Evaluation of prophylactic use of Echinacea purpurea extract on the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in various strains of mice resulted in diminished bacteria number in livers of C57Bl/6 (susceptible strain) as well as B6C3F1 (relative resistant strain) mice. Bany 2003b
Oral administration of the Alchinal, which contain 3 substances including Echinacea purpurea extract, twice a day in 30 microl doses for 10 days after infecting mice with Trichinella larvae, suggested the remedy causes antiparasitic immunity enhancement in mice. Bany 2003a
Administration of Echinacea powder (1:3) with food at a dose of 1.0 g/10 kg body weight once daily for 8 weeks showed improvement for 92% of 39 dogs with manifestations of canine chronic and seasonal upper respiratory tract infections. Reichling 2003
The acute use of Echinacea purpurea is supported by anecdotal reports, and the potential enhancement of humoral immune responses as well as innate immune responses demonstrated using female Swiss mice. Freier 2003
Oral treatment of an aqueous-ethanolic extract of 4 medicinal drugs including Echinaceae purpureae radix and E. pallidae radix, on the course of Influenza A virus infection in Balb/c mice increased the survival rate, prolonged the mean survival time and reduced lung consolidation and virus titer. Bodinet 2002
The Echinacea preparations containing optimal concentrations of cichoric acid, polysaccharides and alkylamides were potentially effective in stimulating an in vivo, non-specific immune response in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats (425-475 g). Goel 2002
Oral administration of Echinacea purpurea at 100 mg kg(-1) twice daily for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice showed significant inhibition of the formation of oedema. Raso 2002
Administration of a herbal immuno-modulator, containing 6 drugs including Echinaceae purpureae caused enhancement of antibody response against sheep red blood cells, inducing an increase in numbers of splenic plaque forming cells and titers of specific antibodies in treated animals. Bodinet 2002
Results confirm anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of E. pallida and its constituent echinacoside in rats, after topical application, with respect to E. purpurea and control. Speroni 2002
Results suggest that Echinacea purpurea alkylamides at a dose level of approximately 12 microg/kg body effectively stimulate alveolar macrophage function in healthy rats. The immunomodulatory effects of alkylamides appear to be more pronounced in lungs than in spleen. Goel 2002
Results demonstrate that therapy involving specific tumor cell immunization, followed by daily phytotherapy (Echinacea purpurea), sensitized the immune cells in mice and led to life span prolongation greater than that provided by immunization alone. Currier 2002
Horses treated with Echinacea showed stimulated immunocompetence, increased haemoglobin and erythrocytes levels. O'Neill 2002
Echinacea and Glycyrrhiza monoextracts alone showed lower RCt/RCc-values than Revitonil (phytopharmaceutical containing both), a potentiating synergistic effect of the extract mixture can be postulated as revealed by the in vivo carbon-clearance model in mice. Wagner 2002
In normal 3-week-old female AKR/J mice, mortality from thymic lymphoma was delayed markedly after injection into the thymus of cell-free extract of thymus from the experimental 28-week-old female AKR/J mice that received the oral Echinacea purpurea preparation was injected directly into the thymus. Hayashi 2001
Three months after leukemia onset, Echinacea purpurea-treated mice still had 2-3 times the normal numbers of NK cells in their spleens and all the major hemopoietic and immune cell lineages in their bone marrow birth site. No leukemic, untreated mice remained alive at 3 months. Currier 2001
Individual administration to mice of either Echinacea purpurea and melatonin was either without effect (E. purpurea) or even advantageous (melatonin) to granular leukocytes and their precursors, myeloid cells, but when administered together, these agents significantly perturbed myelopoiesis. Currier 2001
Results suggest no evidence of altered natural killer cell activity, T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity, or specific antibody formation in male rats (225 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg commercial echinacea) for 6 weeks. Antibody formation was significantly suppressed in female but not males. South 2001
The natural preparation of the herbs (Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea L., Scorzonera humilis L., Aconitum moldavicum Hacq.) normalized both the activity of the investigated enzymes and coefficients of the liver weights of sick animals. [Article in Ukrainian] Marchenko 2000
Medicinal plants like Echinacea angustifolia or Goldenseal found to enhance immune function by increasing antigen-specific immunoglobulin production in rats which were injected with the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) & re-exposed to KLH after the initial exposure. Rehman 1999
The specific nature of Echinacea-derived phytochemicals as stimulants of natural-killer cells and monocytes which are responsible for nonspecific immunity, as the first line of defense against virus-infected/transformed cells was demonstrated in normal mice. Sun 1999
Immunomodulating activity of E gloriosa, E. angustifolia and Rudbeckia speciosa ethanol-water extracts for mice Bukovsky 1995
Homoeopathic combination of Lachesis, Pyrogenium, Echinacea and Chlorophyll for vetinary respiratory infections is comparable to Oxytetrazycline or the combination of Sulfadimidin and Trimethoprim Schutte 1994
Radiation antioxidant protection by Echinacea purpurea, emoxypine and citomedine mobilize vitamins E and A in rats so should be used with vitamin supplementation Paranich 1993
Polysaccharides from E purpurea cell cultures activate human and murine phagocytes, increase TNF and improve response to tumor, Leishmania, Listeria and Candida Steinmuller 1993
Phagocytic, metabolic and bactericidal activities of peritoneal macrophages stimulated by E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, Rudbeckia fulgida and R. speciosa. Echinacea also increased total weight of the spleens Bukovsky 1993
Ethanol extract from roots of E. gloriosa, E. angustifolia and Rudbeckia speciosa stimulates immunity in mice, especially lysosomal and peroxidal activity on the 7th day Bukovsky 1993
Extracts of E. angustifolia, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Baptisia tinctoria and Arnica montana stimulate phagocytosis Wagner 1991
Purified polysaccharides of E purpurea enhance macrophage production of IL1, TNF-a and IL6 and inhibition of Candida. There is also increased phagocyte proliferation in spleen and marrow and granulocyte migration Roesler 1991
E. angustifolia increases serum immunoglobulin in Leghorn chickens Schranner 1989
Ethanolic extracts of E. purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots enhance phagocytosis seen in the carbon clearance test with mice and in the granulocyte test. Lipophilic fractions appeared to be more active than the polar fractions Bauer 1988
Topical anti-inflammatory activity with the Croton oil ear test shows that the E angustifolia 30- 100 kD aqueous fraction was the most active in inhibiting the oedema and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells Tragni 1988
Echinacin (from E. purpureae) reduced post-operative skin necrosis Meissner 1987
Polysaccharidic fraction from E angustifolia roots inhibited carrageenan and croton induced inflammation and reduced leukocytic infiltration. Effect was slightly inferior to indomethacin Tubaro 1987
Topically applied root extract of E. angustifolia inhibited croton or carrageenan induced edema more potently than benzidamine Tragni 1985
[Influence of Echinacea purpurea extracts on properdin levels in rabbits.]. [Article in German] Busing 1958
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Soaring Bear, Ph.D.
May 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: J. Mohanasundarum, MD, PhD
January 2010
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
September 2022