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Scientific Name:
Crocus sativus
Family Name:
Iridaceae
Common Name:
saffron
Safety Data
Interactions
In high concentrations, crocin was significantly toxic to cancer cells while resulting in side effects in healthy tissue; combined with cisplatin, lower doses of crocin was anticarcinogenic and reduced cisplatin toxicity in healthy tissue. Bijani 2021
Injection for 14 days of crocin from Crocus sativus (saffron) alone and combined with escitalopram reduced memory deficits in stress-induced depression rats; crocin improved brain function more than escitalopram, while the combination improved locomotor activity more than escitalopram. Joodaki 2021
Crocin from Crocus sativus (saffron) combined with vincristine enhanced apoptosis in human EBV-transformed B-lymphocyte, as well as concentration- and time-dependently reduced cell viability in CO 88BV59-1 cells via the induction of the intrinsic pathway with no significant toxicity toward normal B cells. Jahromi 2021
An invetigation of the interactions of safranal with hen egg white lysozyme found the binding site of safranal to be the big hydrophobic cavity of lysozyme. The amino acids involved in the interactions were Asp52, Ile58, Gln57, Asn59, Trp62, Trp63, Trp108, Ile98, Asp101, and Ala107. Ali 2020
The GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing) abolished the anxiolytic effects of an acute dose of crocins (50 mg/kg, i.p., 60 min before testing) from Crocus sativus (saffron) in rats. Pitsikas 2020
A combination of Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, and crocin from Crocus sativus (saffron) significantly and synergistaclly improved renal function in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Amin 2020
Concommitant administration of an aqueous extract of saffron significantly improved the neurological toxicity of sofosbuvir, a promising antiviral drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in rats. Ibrahim 2020
Crocin decreased the viability of gastric cancer cells and increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro while it did not affect mRNA expression of MDR1. Results of MTT assay suggest that it might inhibit multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) function. Shariat Razavi 2020
Crocetin, a constituent of saffron, ameliorated the cardiotoxicity of arsenic trioxide, commonly used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemialeukemia, in rats. Effects were associated with inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Zhao 2020
Crocin (administered intraperitoneally) alleviated the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rats by reducing tachycardia, recovering mitochondrial function and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and restraining inflammation, effects associated with the TLR2/NF-?B pathway. Chu 2020
A hydroalcoholic extract of saffron provided significant protection against aluminum maltolate-induced cell death and oxidative stress in PC12 cells, which may beneficial as a treatment against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. Rahmani 2020
o-administration of crocin (15-30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) enhanced the analgesic effect of morphine and at the lower dose reduced drug tolerance, while decreasing serum BDNF levels, in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Safakhah 2020
Crocin largely failed to ameliorate nitrate tolerance induced by subcutaneous nitroglycerine injections in rats, although it significantly ameliorated malondialdehyde increases. Omidkhoda 2020
Intraperitoneal administration of safranal ameliorated metabolic effects of olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, such as increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, leptin, and metabolic blood pressure, in rats. Malekzadeh 2019
Safranal was found to molecularly bind with whey proteins in aqueous solution, with binding strength decreasing in the order of a-lactalbumin, whey protein isolate, and ß-lactoglobulin, and with the highest affinity toward bovine serum albumin. Feyzi 2019
In a human study, intake of infusion of saffron (Crocus sativus) for six days reduced caffeine metabolite ratios, indicative of CYP1A2-inhibitory activity, in male but not female subjects; no effect was seen on drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2A6, XO, and NAT2. Begas 2019
Crocin (5-20 mg/kg), alone and in combination with mesalazine (100 mg/kg), alleviated acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in a rat model, including significantly (p <0.05) improving body weight and organosomatic index and reducing macroscopic and microscopic scores. Faramarzpour 2019
Crocin suppresses the proliferation of cancer cells by binding to tubulin and modifying the microtubule dynamics, according to a new study, also displaying strong synergistic effects with anticancer drugs such as cisplatin or sorafenib. Sawant 2019
Immersion in saffron extract solution for 72 hours was shown to change the color of dental resin composites. Usha 2018
A combination formula of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus extracts was shown to induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 activity, but had no effect on CYP 2C6 and 2D2, in rats. The effect was attributed to to a large extent to ginseng. Zhang 2018
Potential synergistic effects on the cardiovascular system, shown by ingredients of a traditional Chinese compound saffron formula (Crocus sativus; Moschus, Beaver Castoreum), were assessed using systems pharmacology approach. Liu 2018
Crocetin suppressed the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells, alone and synergistically with cisplatin, in vitro. Li 2017
Crocin sensitized head and neck cancer cells to radiation in vitro. Vazifedan 2017
Crocetin increased growth-suppressing effects of fluorouracil on breast cancer cells, by shifting autophagic cell survival to autophagic cell death. Zhang 2017
Crocin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and SPC-A1 cells, in vitro, also showing additive effects with cisplatin and pemetrexed. Chen 2015
Safranal (4-100 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) increased the metabolic activity of CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A enzymes, while crocin (4-100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) decreased the enzymes activity, as well as that of CYP2A, in rat liver microsomes ex vivo. Dovrtělová 2015
Could Crocus sativus (saffron) be combined with conventional therapies for ocular diseases? [No abstract] Bhandari 2015
Crocin (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and safranal (1 mg/kg, i.p.), for 8 weeks, alone or in combination with insulin, improved histopathological, biochemical, and behavioral measures, indicative of neuroprotective effects, in diabetic rats. Positive interactions with insulin were noted. Farshid 2015
Bioaccessibility of crocetin sugar esters in herbal infusions (either hydroxycinnamic acid- or flavan-3-ol-rich) was improved (66.3-88.6%), compared to the reference saffron infusion (60.9%). Ordoudi 2015
No evidence of additive effect of photobiomodulation and saffron as neuroprotectants was observed in a rat model of light-induced retinal damage; possible negative interaction when the two treatments are given simultaneously is noted. Di Marco 2014
Freeze-dried saffron (Crocus sativus) extract, synergistically with low-frequency electromagnetic field, decreased VEGFR2 gene expression by up to 38%, in human breast cancer cells, in vitro. Mousavi 2014
Subacute toxicity of safranal (0.2 mL/kg, IP) was reduced when it was co-administered with an aqueous extract of saffron (5-20 mg/kg, IP), as shown by reduced mortality, and normalized levels of triglyceride, BUN and ALT, in rats. Ziaee 2014
A combination of safranal, curcumin, and thymoquinone (a constituent of Nigella sativa) was found to provide the best protection of neuronal cells against glucose/serum deprivation-induced cell death (a model of cerebral ischemia), in vitro. Alinejad 2013
An extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) counteracted radical oxygen species production in rabbit heart ex vivo, but was not particularly effective against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Chahine 2013
A synergistic combination of crocin and cisplatin induced apoptosis and suppressed invasion ability in osteosarcoma cells. Li 2013
Crocetin inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in human lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer cells, in vitro, and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine. Zhong 2011
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Rasheed Rabata
April 2019
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
November 2021