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Scientific Name:
Crocus sativus
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Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
Compared to Crocus sativus (saffron) produced in other countries, Lebanese Crocus produced higher linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, glucose, and picrocrocin, as well as exhibited high antioxidant activity and inhibited human lung adenocarcinoma cell growth likely due to high polyphenolic content. Samaha 2021
Crocus sativus (saffron) flower growth, root, and corm was improved by increasing the proportion of blue to red light. Blue light enhanced antioxidant capacity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, as well as directed activity and biomass toward floral organs and corms which became heavier, at the cost of reducing their number. Red light directed biomass toward leaves and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. Moradi 2021
Cultivation of Crocus sativus (saffron) with semi-saline water was possible with the highest percentage of corms sprouting and flowering obtained in early October planting dates (with maximum values during the third year). Pirasteh-Anosheh 2021
Crocus sativus (saffron) has an endophytic bacterial microbiome which forms 47 different operational taxonomic units, spanning over 28 genera. This microbiome can promote the plant's growth, may be inhibitory against fungal pathogens, and can be developed for increased productivity and sustainability. The endophytes, except for Microbacterium oxydans, did not cause any disease symptoms. Ahmad 2021
A study evaluated the suitability of six non-traditional areas for saffron (Crocus sativus) cultivation in the western Himalayas based upon morphology, yield, and quality parameters. Kothari 2021
High salt stress significantly affected the production of apocarotenoids crocin and picrocrocin in saffron (Crocus sativus) plants. Moslemi 2021
A novel method of nitrogen (N) fertilization prevented nitrous oxide emission and N leaching and runoff associated with environmental degradation in the north-western Himalayas, while increasing saffron (Crocus sativus) yield by 33.33%. Sharma 2021
Researchers analyzed 440 color images of saffron, illustrating the three classes (i.e. Pushal, Negin, and Sargol) used to characterize saffron by experts in Iran. Mohamadzadeh Moghadam 2020
The occurrence of Bursaphelenchus fungivorus nematode in Italy in association with Crocus sativus corms is reported for the first time. Torrini 2020
Use of adsorbent materials, including activated carbon and zeolite, ameliorated the allelopathic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) corm extracts on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings. Kheirabadi 2020
A report demonstrates successful integration of Cas9 into cormlet cultures of saffron, which constitutes the first step for genetic modification of saffron (Crocus sativus). Chib 2020
A "green" method of obtaining polyphenol extracts, characterized by the abundance of the flavonol kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and the anthocyanin delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, from saffron processing waste is described. Lakka 2019
Saffron cultivation in southern Italy achieved yields of 28.1 kg of the dried stigma per hectare; cultivation site with higher air temperature and without excessive rain during the flowering period generated the best stigma yield with high-quality traits. Cardone 2019
Climatic and cultivation conditions (e.g. altitude, temperature, and precipitation/rainfall), as well as the presence of virus infections, were found to significantly determine the quality of saffron (Crocus sativus) and the content of its metabolites. Parizad 2019
A Chinese study determined the optimal drying conditions for saffron (Crocus sativus) red stigmas to be 100 °C for 20 min in both electric oven and vacuum oven, with coloring, aroma, and bitterness strength after drying showing similar results for both methods. Yao 2018
The effects of drying methods (shade, sun, or oven) on the microbiological and volatile profiles of saffron stigma were assessed, with results showing that biodiversity indexes were linked to drying method and generally decreased as the intensity of treatment increased. Fancello 2018
This study reports on the discovery of a basidiomycetous latent pathogen, Porostereum spadiceum, which is capable of producing phytotoxic compounds and inducing corm rot in Crocus sativus in vivo and field conditions. Wani 2018
The relationship between polyphenol oxidase activity and the total phenolic content in Crocus sativus corms was elucidated. Esmaeili 2017
Ultrasound augmented safranal and crocin production in suspension cultures of saffron (C. sativus) callus cells. Taherkhani 2017
An oleaginous fungal endophyte, Mortierella alpina CS10E4, was associated with improvements in morphological and physiological traits, stigma biomass, and enhanced production of apocarotenoids in Crocus sativus plants. Wani 2017
Saffron production systems in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran were characterized as having the highest eco-efficiency value, with the lowest CO2 emission rates, as compared to other crops. Mohammadzadeh 2017
Saffron production in Iran was evaluated from an environmental point of view. Khanali 2017
The diversity of fungal endophytes in saffron (C. sativus) corms collected in Jammu and Kashmir, India, was elucidated. Wani 2016
The diversity of fungi associated with the underground organs of Crocus sativus was explored using genetic methods. Ambardar 2016
Conditions that may improve saffron (C. sativus) yield in Iran were evaluated. Saffron yield correlated the most with fresh and dry weights of the daughter corms and flowers. Improved farm management practices are recommended. Bayat 2016
Production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described. Sevindik 2016
Culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from Crocus sativus plants grown in the Kashmir valley (India) and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Sharma 2015
The physiology, known molecular mechanisms of flowering and vegetative growth in saffron (C. sativus), as well as its phytochemistry and biotechnological aspects are reviewed. Ahrazem 2015
The energy expenditure that goes into saffron production cycle in Iran was minutely characterized. Bakhtiari 2015
Three methods of drying saffron, viz. electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave, were evaluated. Higher oven temperatures (no more than 70°C), but lower microwave power were found to increase the quality. Tong 2015
The impact of climate change-associated events on saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) production in Kashmir is reviewed and discussed. Husaini 2014
Split foliar fertilisation increased saffron (Crocus sativus) yield, number of flowers, and crocin, while decreasing the picrocrocin and safranal content of the saffron stigmas. Rabani-Foroutagheh 2014
Saffron dried in milder conditions had the lowest content of secondary metabolites. The highest levels of safranal were in the samples dried at 55°C for 95min; those of trans-crocin-4 and picrocrocin, in the sample dried at 60°C for 55min. Cossignani 2014
A complete protocol for in vitro saffron (Crocus sativus) cormlet production is presented. Parray 2012
Saffron (along with olive oil, milk, and honey) is reportedly one of the most common targets for adulteration, according to the report of development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues. Moore 2012
Inclusion of silver nanoparticles (up to 300 ppm) in sample packaging allowed to achieve similar levels of antimicrobial control at lower levels of radiation (2 kGy), compared with saffron packaged without the nanoparticles. Hamid Sales 2012
Microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus) were produced in vitro. Mir 2010
The changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and isoenzyme profiles during in vitro shoot formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were determined. Sharifi 2010
The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in Crocus sativus were crocetin, its glucoside derivatives and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. Moraga 2009
It is suggested that application of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron (Crocus sativus) growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. Sharaf-Eldin 2008
Identification of ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron show that Effective Microorganisms + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation. Aytekin 2008
To develop an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of saffron, a factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design to investigate the effects of various concentrations of thidiazuron on somatic embryogenesis induction from 5 different types of corm explants. Sheibani 2007
A protocol has been developed for plant regeneration from protoplast culture of Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii using regenerable embryogenic calli obtained from shoot meristem culture on MS+9.28 microM kinetin+4.52 microM 2,4-D.. Karamian 2007
The presence of Guaiacol peroxidases activity in extract samples, prepared from Crocus sativus L. corms that were either dormant or rooting for 3, 6 and 10 days, was investigated. Ghamsari 2007
Statistical analyses indicated the treatment of NAA and BAP (each 1 mg L(-1)) as the best hormonal treatment for the plantlet regeneration from the domestic saffron calli. Chaloushi 2007
The activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, o-dianisidine and ascorbate peroxidases, was investigated in Crocus sativus L. corms cultivated in normoxic and hypoxic-anoxic conditions. Keyhani 2006
Alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, and NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenase activities were investigated in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms cultivated in normoxic and hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Keyhani 2004
A water cultural experiment with 4 different potassium (K) concentrations showed that K content, chlorophyll content, relative ATP content & net photosynthetic rate in Crocus sativus leaves increased with improving K concentration. [Article in Chinese] Liu 2004
La3+ and Ce3+, either singly or a mixture, promoted crocin production of Crocus sativus callus but Nd3+ had little effect and all metal ions were toxic above 100 microM. Chen 2004
Induction frequency of style-stigma-like structures formed on petal-like structures is higher than that formed on the petals of Crocus sativus L. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2002
A glycoconjugate has been characterized from saffron corms (Crocus sativus L.) that inhibit the growth of roots of Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana, at concentrations ranging from 1-100 micrograms m-3. Fernández 2000
Callus extracts of Crocus sativus exhibited the ability to transform all-trans-crocetin into its related glycosides between pH 7.0 and 7.6 in the presence of uridine-diphospho-glucose. Dufresne 1997
Carotenoid glucose esters increase from the period before blooming and reach their maximum in the full blooming period, and are sensitive for the presence of oxygen, light irradiation, and beta-glucosidase. Morimoto 1994
[Formation of Stigma-Like Structures and Pigment in Cultured Tissues of Crocus sativus.] Koyama 1988
[Effect of increasing the yield of gibberellin-treated Crocus sativus] [Article in Chinese] Xiue 1986
[Cultivation of Crocus sativus] [Article in Chinese] Xue 1982
A study of the saffron ontogenesis has been carried out, with special reference to the morphophysiological state of cells and nuclei in the stem apices. [Article in Russian] Azizbekova 1978
History of Record
April 2019
November 2021