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Scientific Name:
Crocus sativus
Family Name:
Iridaceae
Common Name:
saffron
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Photobiomodulation and Crocus sativus (saffron) alone and in combination affected retinal neurodegenerative in rats by preserving retinal thickness and gliosis and microglia invasion although the combined treatment was restricted to early neuroinflammation. Di Paolo 2021
Crocus sativus (saffron) alleviated repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and reduced neuronal damage in mice by activating detoxifying genes and inhibiting NLRP3 activationNLRP3 inflammasome activation. Shaheen 2021
Crocetin from Crocus sativus (saffron) injected for 14 days into mice with acute viral myocarditis significantly increased survival, attenuated myocardial necrotic lesions, and reduced coxsackievirus B3 replication and expression of ROCK2 and interleukin-17. ROCK inhibition increased survival and decreased viral replication and inflammatory response. Qin 2021
Intraperitoneal administrationfor 14 days of crocin from Crocus sativus (saffron) demonstrated some protection against the oxidative effects of copper oxide nanoparticles in rat cerebellar cortical tissues. Mohamed 2021
Intraperitoneal pre-administration of Crocus sativus (saffron) petal hydroalcoholic extract significantly attenuated cardiovascular responses induced by both angiotensin II and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in hypertensive rats. Mohebbati 2021
Dietary consumption of Crocus sativus (saffron) petal extract and saffron petal anthocyanins ameliorated polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms in mice by improving dysregulation of ovarian steroids, steroidogenic, antioxidant enzymes, and inflammatory markers. Moshfegh 2021
Administration (7.5, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg via gavage for 11 days) of saffron (Crocus sativus) to colitis mice dose-dependently improved colon gross and histological features and subsequently improved body weight and colon length while reducing disease activity, as well as decreased pro-inflammatory macrophages and increased anti-inflammatory macrophages, protein expression, T-cell and dendritic cell activity. Results were associated with AHr/Nrf-2 pathways. Singh 2021
Administration of saffron (Crocus sativus) and crocetin significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction induced by mutant α-synuclein overexpression in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease, extending life span, as well as exhibited a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. Inoue 2021
Crocin (30-60 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally) dose-dependently reversed the effect of chronic restraint stress on long-term potentiation in the memory-related CA1 hippocampal area of rats. Hosseini Dastgerdi 2021
Pretreatment with saffron (Crocus sativus) significantly ameliorated colitis, improved histopathology, modulated gut microbiota composition, and decreased secretion of serotonin and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by colonic tissues in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Banskota 2021
Intraperitoneal administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) or its active compound crocin (but not crocetin) reduced post-operative adhesion band frequency in mice after abdominal surgery. Arjmand 2021
Saffron treatments (30-60 mg/kg for 7 days) dose-dependently reduced anxiety, hippocampal TNF-α and cortisol levels, while increasing hippocampal BDNF gene expression, in sub-chronically stressed rats. Compared to the low dose, the high dose had a latent but long-lasting impact. Roustazade
Safranal decreased serum IgE levels and mast cell numbers in lung tissue and normalized Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in an in vivo ovalbumin-induced model of asthma, reduced serum histamine and LTC4 levels in an in vivo passive systemic anaphylaxis model, and inhibited bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation and production of LTC4, IL-6, and TNF-α cytokines in vitro. Lertnimitphun 2021
An ethanolic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) dose-dependently mitigated hepatotoxicity induced by copper nanoparticles in a mouse model. Attia 2021
Safranal reduced the production of IL-1β in ATP-elicited peritoneal inflammation and MSU-induced air pouch inflammation in mice, as well as strongly suppressed the expression and ATPase activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the release of IL-1β by macrophages in vitro. Gupta 2021
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin 24 h after bile duct ligation surgery for up to 30 days alleviated cholestasis-induced neuroinflammation, as shown by reduced levels of TFAM, PGC-1α, and superoxide dismutase in a rat model. Eteghadi 2021
Administration of saffron (Crocus sativus) (20-40 mg/kg, orally, for 42 days) significantly ameliorated kidney dysfunction, as shown by serum urea, creatinine, and albumin, and renal CTGF and RAGE gene expression levels, in a model of diabetic nephropathy in type-1 diabetic rats. Amri 2021
Crocetin and crocin from Crocus sativus (saffron) showed anti-angiogenic effects n zebrafish, significantly inhibiting subintestinal vein vessels formation; crocetin was more effective than crocin in inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of the VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Zhao 2021
Administration for 15 days of crocin significantly ameliorated cardiac tissue damage induced by periodontitis in rats, as well as signifcantly improved bone resorption parameters and reduced malondialdehyde levels and total oxidant score. Kocaman 2021
An optimized saffron (Crocus sativus) compound essence formula decreased skin thickness, wrinkle formation, and normalized collagen content following topical application in mice exposed to ultraviolet radiation, effects possibly associated with the ERK1/2 pathway. Li 2021
Saffron (Crocus sativus) extract administered by gavage to rats for 8 weeks in combination with exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and neurotrophin-3 mRNA in the soleus muscle, compared with saffron alone, while both groups increased hippocampal 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid levels and short-term memory compared with control. Akbari-Fakhrabadi 2021
Crocin (injected intraperitoneally) restored memory function and decreases in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (the main receptor for BDNF), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the hippocamus of total sleep deprived mice. Looti Bashiyan 2021
Saffron (Crocus sativus) extract, combined with high-intensity exercise and/or alone, significantly decreased tumor volume in breast cancer mice. However, while both treatments may mediate the apoptotic pathway as shown by Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3, the combination did not improve apoptotic induction in tumor tissue. Ahmadabadi 2021
Safr'Inside™ (6.5 mg/kg per os), a saffron (Crocus sativus) extract, elicited antidepressant effects in mice by affecting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Monchaux De Oliveira 2021
A study reports powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of crocin in a D-galactose-induced model of aging rats. Omidkhoda 2021
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin showed renoprotective effects, including significant improvement in kidney function, in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced kidney toxicity; effects were associated with antioxidant activity and attenuating NF-κB, iNOS, COX2, and TNFα. Hussain 2021
Pretreatment with crocin from Crocus sativus L. (saffron) improved spatial and aversive learning and memory in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats; no significant difference in oxidative and neuroinflammatory responses was observed. Azmand 2021
Safranal alleviated changes in body weight and locomotor activity, as well as tissue levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione, in an rat model of Huntington's disease. Fotoohi 2021
Acute intraperitoneal administration of crocins, the bioactive constituents of saffron (Crocus sativus), reversed severe memory impairment associated with the anesthetic use of ketamine in rats. Pitsikas 2021
Saffron (Crocus sativus) extract, co-administered intraperitoneally, decreased signs of morphine dependence and withdrawal symptoms severity, with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin, in rats. Kiashemshaki 2021
Crocin inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and tumor growth in mice, an effect associated with by downregulation of TPM4 gene expression. Luo 2021
Crocetin reduced inflammation and amyloid β levels and improved memory in Alzheimer's disease mice, penetrated the blood brain barrier and promoted autophagy in the hippocampi of wild-type mice, and induced amyloid β clearance in microglial cells in vitro. Wani 2021
Administration for four weeks of an aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma and petals significantly decreased mean weight and improved insulin resistance, decreasing insulin and adiponectin levels, in obese rats. Mohaqiq 2020
Saffron (Crocus sativus) extract increased catalase activity and decreased malondialdehyde levels in the retina of diabetic rats. Skourtis 2020
Crocin significantly alleviated the detrimental effects of electromagnetic fields on testicular histology, sperm quality, and serum levels of reproductive hormones in male rats. Vafaei 2020
Oral administration of affron®, a standardized extract of saffron (Crocus sativus), ameliorated behaviors associated with fear, anxiety, depression, and anhedonia in an animal model of social isolation. Orio 2020
Crocin, from Crocus sativus (saffron), administered by injection, alleviated liver fibrosis in a mouse model, an effect associated with the lnc-LFAR1/MTF-1/GDNF axis. Xuan 2020
Ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus, particlularly of stigmas and petals, exhibited analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and antidepressant activities in mice. Khan 2020
Crocetin (20-80 mg/kg orallyy) showed antidepressant-like effects, increasing serum dopamine levels and preventing injury to hippocampal neurons, in a chronic restraint stress mouse model of depression. Lin 2020
A combination of Edgeworthia gardneri, Sibiraea angustata, and Crocus sativus (saffron) improved glycemia, modulated gut bacterial dysbiosis, maintained integrity of the intestinal epithelium, and decreased markers of inflammation in diabetic rats after six weeks of treatment. Li 2020
An aqueous solution of crocins isolated from Crocus sativus (saffron) enhanced insulin expression and reduced glucose levels in zebrafish embryos via increases in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase1. Kakouri 2020
Crocin alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury in neuropathic pain/neuropathy rats. Effects were blocked by atropin, indicative of involvement of muscarinic receptors in the action of the Crocus sativus (saffron) compound. Safakhah 2020
Crocin intraperitoneal administration for 28 days significantly alleviated learning and memory impairments induced by oral bisphenol A administration in rats, in part via antioxidant activity and modulation of AMPA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Vahdati Hassani 2020
Crocetin and crocin from saffron reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum and tumor tissues of breast cancer-bearing mice and in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Crocetin showed higher hypolipidemic potential than crocin. Hashemi 2020
Intraperitoneal adminstration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus stamens, a by-product of saffron production, attenuated hypertension induced by angiotensin II or a nitric oxide inhibitor, as well as significantly improved baroreceptor sensitivity, in rats. Mohebbati 2020
Crocetin from saffron ameliorated motor deficits and protected dopaminergic neurons via decreases in inflammatory-associated gene expression and inflammatory cytokine production and preservation of mitochondrial function in mouse models of Parkinson's disease and in vitro. Dong 2020
Crocin alleviates schizophrenia-like symptoms, including learning deficits and motor perturbations, in a rat model via increases in silent information regulator-1 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Sun 2020
Sailuotong, a standardized combination of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus extracts used for the treatment of vascular dementia, significantly suppressed vasoconstriction in isolated tail artery of the rat. Yeon 2020
Crocin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally), but not daily exercise, alleviated memory deficits induced by chronic unpredictable stress in rats. Dastgerdi 2020
Crocetin ameliorated arsenic trioxide-induced liver damage in rats, an effect which may be related to its role in antioxidant stress, as an anti-inflammatory agent, and in regulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Liu 2020
Administration for 12 days of crocin (30 mg/kg) significantly rescued pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and granular cells in the dentate gyrus region from apoptosis and restored arborization of neurons in the frontal cortex in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Hadipour 2020
Crocin (50 mg/kg, for 8 weeks) exhibited hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, as well as preserved kidney structure and function, in a mouse model of diabetes, effects possibly to related to modulation of oxidative stress-mediated NF-?B signaling. Qiu 2020
Saffron (Crocus sativus) extract (30-300 mg/kg, orally, on days 2-42 following ischemia) improved body weight loss, neurological deficit, and spontaneous activity, as well as ameliorated anxiety-like state and cognitive dysfunction, in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Zhong 2020
Crocin (10-40 mg/kg) alleviated hepatotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptosis in the liver, as well as kidney damage, induced by the consumption of ethanol in rats. Rezaee-Khorasany 2020
Administration for six weeks of a combination of Cyperus rotundus, Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum, and Boswellia serrata ameliorated learning and memory deficits induced by hypothyroidism in rats. Saeri 2020
Safranal improved heart morphology, attenuated contractions, improved oxidative stress markers, and regulated Ca2+ homeostasis in rat models of myocardial ischemia. Xue 2020
Safranal (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, daily for 3 weeks) prevented oxidative stress and toxicity in the brain induced by hyperthyroidism in rats. Shahat 2020
Crocin administration attenuated liver damage and hepatic oxidative stress and improved kidney function in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats Margaritis 2020
Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract in conjunction with high-intensity interval training increased mRNA expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), compared to exercise alone, in a mouse model of breast cancer. Nezamdoost 2020
Crocetin, administered by injection, showed antinociceptive effects in a rat model of orofacial pain, possibly due to central H2 histaminergic and alpha-2 adrenergic, but not opioid, receptors. Erfanparast 2020
Crocetin from saffron inhibited glioma in mouse xenograft models more effectively than radiotherapy alone, including increases in disease-free and overall survival following surgical tumor removal. Colapietro 2020
An aqueous extract of saffron, as well as high-intensity interval training, but not their combination, decreased muscle wasting and cachexia in breast tumor-bearing mice. Ahmadabadi 2020
Combinations of crocin and crocetin, the two bioactive carotenoids from saffron, suppressed tumor growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer in mice, as well as significantly inhibited migration, cell mobility, and invasion, and attenuated adhesion to ECM in 4T1 breast cancer cells. Arzi 2020
The saffron carotenoids crocin and crocetin inhibited activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in human breast cancer cells in vitro; however, both increased SOD activity in breast tumors of a mouse after 1 month of treatment. Hashemi 2020
An extract of Crocus sativus petals protected against oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver injury induced by anti-tuberculosis drugs in rats. Wali 2020
Crocetin decreased all measured parameters of renal function, including urea, creatinine, uric acid, and electrolyte (Na, K, Cl, P, Mg, Ca) levels, as well resulted in significant reduction of inflammatory markers and epithelial damage, in a rat model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. Michael 2020
Crocin (orally, for up to 8 weeks) ameliorated liver damage and fibrosis induced by intraperitoneal administration of carbon tetrachloride in rats via PPAR-? mediated modulation of inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Chhimwal 2020
Crocin significantl reduced tumor burden in mice with pancreatic cancer, as well as provided significant protection against radiation-induced hepatic oxidative damage, reduced levels of hepatic toxicity, and preserved liver morphology. Bakshi 2020
Crocin was shown to significantly enhance sperm morphology, count, motility, and viability, as well as diameter of seminiferous tubules, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Roshankhah 2019
Crocin, a bioactive constituent of Crocus sativus, significantly reversed markers of depression and inhibited inflammation in bronchial and lung tissue and the hippocampus in cigarette-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mice via regulation of PI3K/Akt-mediated inflammatory pathways. Xie 2019
Crocin significantly reduced blood glucose levels, enhanced pancreatic insulin expression and secretion, and suppressed glucagon secretion in type 1 diabetes mellitus mice mainly via reduction of oxidative burden, modulation of apoptotic pathway, and attenuation of pancreatic inflammation. Samaha 2019
Administration of saffron (Crocus sativus) for 8 weeks was shown to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis, decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and modulate metabolic biomarkers in exercising rats. Akbari-Fakhrabadi 2019
Administration of safranal via gavage was shown to dose-dependently ameliorate CCl4-induced liver damage in rats, with the higher dose (100 mg/kg) promoting antioxidation; however, it was not effective on IL-1ß levels. Alayunt 2019
Intraperitoneal administration of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract significantly mitigated neurological deficits in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rats, possibly through diminishing oxidative stress and apoptosis and enhancement of VEGF. Abdel-Rahman 2019
An alcoholic extract of saffron stigma dose-dependently attenuated the hepatotoxicity induced by vincristine, an anticancer drug, in rat, decreasing the activity of liver enzymes and MDA values and enhancing serum total antioxidant capacity. Harchegani 2019
A combination of celecoxib, safranal, and ?3 fatty acids was found to ameliorat inflammatory markers associated with lipotoxicity in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Ghazala 2019
Intraperitoneal administration of Crocus sativus extract ameliorated liver enzyme elevation, oxidative/nitrosative stresses, and liver morphological alterations in methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity rats. Pre-and-post treatment was more effective than only post-treatment. Hoshyar 2019
Crocetin pretreatment protected rats from lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatic failure, an effect possibly associated with regulation of apoptotic proteins in the caspase and Bcl-2 family, as well as modulation of NF-?B expression. Gao 2019
A hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus flower petals (167.5-335 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) dose-dependently ameliorated hepatic and renal damage induced by chronic alcohol intake in male rats, significantly reducing serum concentration of inflammatory indices, renal enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. Azizi 2019
A saffron extract (3% crocin) was shown to decrease neuroinflammation associated with ocular hypertension in a mouse model of glaucoma, decreasing microglion numbers and morphological signs of activation and preventing retinal ganglion cell death. Fernández-Albarral 2019
Safranal (0.025-0.2 ml/kg, orally for 1 week) ameliorated learning and memory decline and prevented neuronal damage in the hippocampus in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by intracranial injection of amyloid beta. Baluchnejadmojarad 2019
Crocin (30-100 mg/kg) suppressed pancreatic inflammation associated with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in an animal model as well as significantly reduced pancreatic edema, amylase, and lipase levels and reverted the pancreatic histology. Godugu 2019
Crocin attenuated titanium particle-induced inflammation associated with osteolysis in prosthesis patients in mice and vitro, as well as promoted osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells. Zhu 2019
Oral and intraocular administration of crocetin, a carotenoid found in saffron (Crocus sativus), improved retinal edema in a murine model of retinal vein occlusion, significantly suppressing overexpression of MMP-9 and TNF-a and reversing the reduction of occludin. Nitta 2019
Pretreatment with crocin for 7 days alleviated rotenone-induced behavioral alterations such as anxiety, decreased motor co-ordination and grip strength, as well as augmented mitochondrial function in the striuatum, in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Rao 2019
Oral administration of crocin administered at 6 h after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage for up to 7 days attenuated neurological deficits and reducde myelin loss, neuron degeneration, iron deposition, reactive oxygen species production, and heme oxygenase-1 expression in mice. Duan 2019
Treatment with saffron stigma extract for 21 days was shown to dose-dependently decrease fasting blood glucose to 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L (compared with 24.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L in the diabetic control group) and to increased insulin levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Motamedrad 2019
Administration of sailuotong, a combination of ginseng, ginkgo, and saffron, was found to protect against ischaemic brain injury in mice by inhibiting astrogliosis and suppressing neuroinflammation via the LCN2-JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Zhang 2019
Post-natal administration of crocin (10 mg/kg) alone was shown to reduce inflammation and brain damage following hypoxia-ischemia, as well as to enhance the therapeutic effect of hypothermia (a standard treatment for infants) in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy mice. Huang 2019
Crocetin and crocin from saffron was shown to significantly increase catalase activity in tumors and liver tissues of 4T1-induced breast cancer in BALB/c mice after 4?weeks of treatment. Hashemi 2019
Crocin-I was found to exert significant antidepressant effects in a mouse model of chronic corticosterone-induced depression, activity probably achieved through the suppression of neuroinflammation (IL-1ß) and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Xiao 2019
Crocin (5-10 mg/kg) was shown to protect bone tissues of rats from histological and architectural alterations associated with metabolic syndrome, ameliorating the decline in bone formation markers and inhibiting the rise in bone resorption markers. Algandaby 2019
Intravenous pre-administration of Crocus sativus (10-40 mg/kg) hydroalcoholic extract significantly reduced peak systolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate in angiotensin II-induced hypertension rats. Plangar 2019
Oral administration of crocin-I ameliorated intestinal dysbiosis, modifying the composition of gut microbiota, and hepatic lipid disorder induced by chronic corticosterone administration in mice. Xie 2019
Crocin (10-40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 5 days) significantly reversed hyoscine-induced memory and learning impairment in rats, an effect associated with alteration in pERK protein levels in the hippocampus. Adabizadeh 2019
Crocin amelioratde ?-ray-induced hepatotoxicity-induced in rats, including reduced deformities, irregular arrangement, congested hepatic vessels, and necrosis in hepatocytes; decreased liver function activities, inflammatory markers, and lipid peroxidation; and increased liver antioxidants. Tawfik 2019
Administration of saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract (40-160 mg/kg) for 4 weeks was shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced histopathological changes in the livers and kidneys of rats via via antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammatory effects. Rezaee-Khorasany 2019
Safranal was shown to normalize gastric volume and pH, reduce gastric ulcer area, and provide gastric protection against indomethacin-induced histological and biochemical changes in rats, effects associated with anti-secretory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Tamaddonfard 2019
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin for 2 weeks was shown to markedly decrease heart rate and ameliorate the pathologic morphology in a mouse model of myocardial fibrosis, effects which may be associated with the TLR4/NF-?B (p65) signal transduction pathway. Jin 2019
Administration of the saffron constituent crocin was found to mitigate the cardiotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, in rats, including a significant improvement of chemical and histological representations toward normal. Khalaf 2019
Oral administration for 3 weeks of saffron hydroalcoholic extract was shown to significantly reduce incidence of hypoglycemia, restore insulin secretion, and alleviate pancreatic histopathology, as well as to provide anti-inflammatory activity, in streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mice. Faridi 2019
Safranal alleviated the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by suppressing the severity of inflammation via inhibition of production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor) and macrophage infiltration. Lertnimitphun 2019
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin (30?mg/kg/day for 30 days) induced behavioral improvement and reversed neurodegeneration, increasing dopamine levels, in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats via activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and enhanced miRNA-7 and miRNA-22. Salama 2019
EPS-2, a novel water-soluble endophytic exopolysaccharide isolated from Crocus sativus dry stigma, was found to attenuate gentamycin-induced ototoxicity in cultured cochlear hair cells, as well as to increase cell survival in a zebrafish model. Li 2019
Pre-treatment with crocin, administered with drinking water at 50-200 ppm, attenuated colitis disease activity in a mouse model. Rezaei 2019
Treatment with crocin, exercise, and combined interventions alleviated both behavioral and morphological deficits induced by adolescent stress in male rats, as well as exerted positive neuronal morphological effects in the prefrontal cortex in non-stressed animals. Ghalandari-Shamami 2019
Both Crocus sativus aqueous extractand crocin were found to relieve symptoms of chronic ethanol withdrawal syndrome in a mice. Shoja 2018
Crocetin, administered orally with indomethacin, was shown to dose-dependently modulate paw edema in rats, as well as to increase red blood cell counts and hemoglobin and decrease white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and multiple inflammation markers. Li 2018
Oral administration of Crocus sativus hydroethanolic extract was shown to reverse locomotor dysfunction in lead (Pb)-intoxicated rodents, as well as to restore tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the brain. Tamegart 2018
Crocin administration was shown to significantly improve memory and cognition, as well as to reduce Aβ1‑42 deposition in the hippocampus, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Wang 2018
Oral administration of saffron for 30 to 90 days was shown to prevent zearalenone-induced reproductive toxicity in female mice, as shown by restoration of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone levels and preservation of the uterine and ovarian anatomy. Ahmad 2018
Oral administration of crocin (20 mg/kg for 8 days) was shown to ameliorate intracolonic AA-induced ulcerative colitis in rats via enhancement of nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2 like protein content and heme oxygenase-1 signaling and downregulation of caspase-3 activity. Khodir 2018
Intraperitoneal administration of saffron (5 mg/kg) in combination with deep brain stimulation increased serum corticosterone levels, decreased c-Fos expression in the amygdala, diminished freezing behavior, and significantly reduced anxiety behavior in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Mokhtari Hashtjini 2018
Transplantation of safranal-treated rat neural stem cells was shown to increase survival and dopamine release in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Zhao 2018
Crocin was shown to decrease tumor sizes, prevent metastases to the liver and lungs, and improve survival in a murine model of triple-negative breast cancer, effects associated with downregulation of the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Arzi 2018
Crocetin, a carotenoid in saffron, was shown to attenuate polycystic ovary syndrome in mice, preventing the prolongation of diestrus and reduction in corpora luteum and recovering gonadotropin-releasing hormone, progesterone, estradiol (E2), and testosterone levels. Hu 2018
Crocin was shown to mitigate carbon tetrachloride-induced damage to intestinal mucosa in rats, including improvements in histological lesions and biochemical results, effects associated with antioxidant activity. Cosgun 2018
Administration of crocin (30 mg/kg) for 15 days was shown to improve MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease complications and decrease cell death in the substantia nigra of male BALB/c mice. Haeri 2018
Intraperitoneal administration of saffron aqueous extract (50-200 mg/kg 3 times/week) for 4 weeks ameliorated the effects of diazinon on blood enzyme levels and prevented reductions in platelet and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit indices in rats. Hariri 2018
Intraperitoneal administration of aqueous extract of saffron (40-80 mg/kg/day for 21 days) dose-dependently increased levels of p-CREB protein, but not of BDNF or VEGF, in the cerebellums of rats, suggesting saffron's antidepressant effect might be due to enhanced phosphorylation of CREB. Asrari 2018
Safranal alone and co-administered with metformin for 37 days dose-dependently attenuated hyperglycemia, hippocampal oxidative stress, neuron loss, and spatial learning and memory impairments in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rats. Delkhosh-Kasmaie 2018
Crocin normalized plasma glucose levels, inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved cardiac contractile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, effects associated with enhancing heat shock response, inhibiting apoptosis, and normalizing autophagy in cardiac myocytes. Feidantsis 2018
Intragastric administration of saffron aqueous extract (100 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks was shown to decrease fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol, while increasing insulin and HDL-c and improving pancreas damage, in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. [Article in Chinese] Jiang 2018
Oral administration of crocetin was shown to significantly improve amyloid-β accumulation-induced learning and memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, an effect associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions. Zhang 2018
Intraperitoneal injection of crocin (30 mg/kg) was shown to ameliorate the detrimental outcomes, including decreased motor activity, of maternal hypoxia on offspring's motor function in rats. Ghotbeddin 2018
Saffron (Crocuc sativus) extract was shown to significantly enhance burn wound healing in rats, effects associated with decreased expression of interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) during the inflammation stage. Alemzadeh 2018
Administration of crocetin (20-60 mg/kg via injection) for 21 days) was shown to ameliorate depression-like behavior and reverse associated oxidative stress in chronic restraint-induced depression rats. Farkhondeh 2018
Crocin (25-100 mg/kg) was shown to protect against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice, as well as to protect against increases in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, effects due at least in part to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Algandaby 2018
Pre-treatment with crocin (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 7 days improved all signs of unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury, including biomarkers of kidney function, inflammation, and oxidative stress, in rats. Abou-Hany 2018
Safranal dose-dependently extended latency to generalized seizure, decreased the highest seizure stages and number of generalized seizures, and decreased seizure-induced neuron loss in mouse models of generalized epilepsy. Nanostructured lipid vehicles as carriers further enhanced the effects. Bo-Qiang 2018
Administration of crocin (10-20 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) was shown to preserve glutathione redox cycle, sperm quality, and hormonal mediators associated with sperm production, as well as to decrease testicular apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide in male rats. Potnuri 2018
Crocin was shown to dose dependently decrease infarct size, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, and LV minimum dP/dt, while increasing capillary density, LV maximum dP/dt, and reducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide production in myocardial infarct rats. Wang 2018
Crocins, active constituents of Crocus sativus, were shown to dose-dependently reverse delay-dependent deficits in the the novel object-recognition task memory test in rats; performance was not affected at any dose. Pitsikas 2018
In an acute feed intake study in rats, Crocus sativus bulb extract was shown to significantly reduce food consumption at the 2-hour time point with a 34.1% reductions after food provision at an equivalent human dosage of 10 g. Yimam 2018
Oral administration of crocin (20 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) was shown to significantly reduce blood glucose and increase insulin level, as well as improve kidney function and renal damage, in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Abou-Hany 2018
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin (10-40 mg/kg/day for 42 days) was shown to diminish lipid peroxidation in the liver and brain tissues, decrease serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and restore glutathione and male sex hormone levels in a d-galactose-induced mouse model of aging. Mohammadi 2018
Intraperitoneal administration of Ccrocin (30 mg/kg/day for 12 days) was shown to significantly improve learning and memory and attenuate hippocampal neuron death in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Hadipour 2018
Crocin (100-200 mg/kg, every two days for 30 days) reduced estrogen and progesterone concentrations and numbers of atretic graafian follicles, in rats, via down-regulation of the hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression. Zohrabi 2018
Long-term (21-day) crocin administration (12.5-50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), known for antidepressant activity, did not significantly increase mRNA and protein levels of VGF nerve growth factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat cerebella. Razavi 2017
Intraperitoneal administration of crocin (30-60 mg/kg/day for 21 days) was shown to significantly ameliorate the deleterious effects of chronic stress on memory in a rat model. However, only the lower dose decreased cortisol levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Dastgerdi 2017
Crocin decreased blood levels of endothelin, triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, while elevating those of HDL-cholesterol, and suppressed inflammation, promoting macrophage re-polarization, in a rat model of coronary atherosclerosis. Li 2017
Dietary crocin (250-500 µg/kg of bodyweight) reduced lung metastases of cancer cells, administered by tail vein injection, by 85%, and decreased invasion, migration, and adhesion capacities of cancer cells by upregulating E-cadherin expression. A Bakshi 2017
Crocetin (perfused intrathecally at various doses for up to 12 days) attenuated mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as inflammation, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury. Wang 2017
Crocin (10-40 mg/kg/day, i.p) reduced lipid peroxidation and ameliorated Parkinson-like motor deficits and inflammation, induced by exposure to the pesticide malathion (i.p), in rats. Mohammadzadeh 2017
An aqueous extract of saffron (C. sativus; 30-90 mg/kg/day, orally, for 4 weeks) reduced atherogenesis and improved glycemic control in diabetic atherosclerotic mice. Christodoulou 2017
Safranal (72.5-145 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was found to have neuroprotective effects in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia (stroke), when administered at 0, 3, and 6 h following 24 h of reperfusion. Sadeghnia 2017
A standardized aqueous extract of saffron (60 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) reduced cardiac infarct size in apolipoprotein-E knockout and wild-type mouse models of ischemia/reperfusion. Efentakis 2017
Saffron, administered via drinking water at 25 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks, improved glycemic control and prevented retinal thickness changes induced by a high-fat diet in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Doumouchtsis 2017
Safranal (0.75 mg/kg daily, for 21 days) ameliorated immobilization-induced behavioral abnormalities and oxidative damage in the brain of rats. Samarghandian 2017
Pretreatment with crocin (100-400 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) ameliorated renal inflammation and oxidative stress, induced by ischemia/reperfusion, in rats. Yarijani 2017
An extract of saffron (C. sativus) decreased blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, and increased the number and body weight of pups, in female rats. [Article in Russian] Hashimova 2017
Crocin (30 mg/kg, daily, for 10 days) attenuated osteoarthritis-induced joint pain and muscle dysfunction, in rats. Lei 2017
Crocin (25 mg/kg, orally, daily for 16 days) attenuated increases in inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, associated with allergic asthma, in a mouse model. Yosri 2017
Administration of crocin (20 mg/kg) ameliorated bisphenol A-induced liver damage, in rats. Vahdati Hassani 2017
An extract of saffron stigma, administered to animals for 4 weeks, ameliorated age-related oxidative changes in rat hippocampi. Samarghandian 2017
Saffron (C. sativus; 100 mg/kg/day) abolished glucose increase and ameliorated liver histopathology in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes. Konstantopoulos 2017
Intraperitoneal injection of saffron did not alleviate endotoxin-induced uveitis in a rabbit model. Talebnejad 2017
Co-administration of Crocus sativus extracts (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) with a sub-potent dose of amitriptyline (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced anti-allodynia, in rats with neuropathic pain. Amin 2017
Crocus sativus extract (50 mg/kg/day via diet) reduced amyloid β load and related pathological changes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and increased the tightness of a cell-based blood-brain barrier model. Batarseh 2017
Saffron (C. sativus) tea (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum, for 2 weeks) ameliorated memory decline, activation of monoamine oxidases and lipid peroxidation in the brain, induced by aflatoxin B1, in rats. Linardaki 2017
Saffron (C. sativus) extract decreased blood glucose, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and increased glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Samarghandian 2017
Crocin (2 mg/kg body weight for 21 days) reduced tumor burden in a mouse model of melanoma. Bakshi 2017
Saffron extract alleviated spinal cord injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion, in rats, as shown by decreased mean motor deficit index scores and plasma malondialdehyde levels. Farjah 2017
Crocin and crocetin, administered by gavage every three days, decreased tumor incidence from 77% to 45% and 33%, respectively, in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat model of breast cancer. Sajjadi 2017
Freeze-dried aqueous extract of saffron, administered by gavage (40 mg/kg b.w. for 6 days), protected against radiation (1-2 Gy)-induced genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, in mice. Koul 2017
Crocins (15-30 mg/kg), active components of saffron (C. sativus), reversed non-spatial recognition memory impairments in an apomorphine-induced rat model of schizophrenia. Pitsikas 2017
Safranal (200 mg/kg, orally) ameliorated cisplatin-induced plasma and renal toxicity in rats, with pretreatment being more effective. Karafakıoğlu 2017
Crocin (50 mg/kg) and safranal (0.025-0.25 mL/kg body weight), administered orally for 2 days, protected mice from DNA damage induced by gamma radiation, urethane, and procarbazine, as well as from testicular cell damage induced by the same agents. Koul 2017
Crocin (5-20 mg/kg, p.o.) was reported to markedly reduce the severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and improve associated cognitive impairments, in mice. Mazumder 2017
Crocin, administered for 15 consecutive days post injury, in conjunction with human endometrial stem cells and electrospun poly ε-caprolactone scaffolds, exerted neuroprotective effects on damaged neurons and augmented spinal cord regeneration, in rats. Terraf 2017
Pretreatment with a hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron (5-20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) nearly normalized kidney function in a rat model of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Mahmoudzadeh 2017
The vasodilatory effects of safranal in isolated rat thoracic aorta rings were shown to occur mainly through endothelium- independent mechanisms. Razavi 2016
Crocin (5-20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), alone and in combination with subcutaneous insulin, for 8 weeks, restored cardiac structure and function in diabetic rats. Farshid 2016
Aqueous extract (1%) of Crocus sativus increased the lifespan and survival of Drosophila melanogaster. Liu 2016
Saffron attenuated the expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 in the retina, induced by bright continuous light and associated with retinal degeneration, in rats. Maccarone 2016
Saffron (C. sativus) extract as well as crocin (40-80 mg/kg body weight/day, independently, for 8 weeks) alleviated hepatic marker enzyme levels increases and histopathological changes, induced by high-fat diet, in a rat model of obesity. Mashmoul 2016
Crocin and safranal independently protected rats from hepatic injury induced by infrarenal artery occlusion. Ozkececi 2016
An aqueous extract of saffron (0.01% w/v), administered to rats as drinking water for 2-10 days, ameliorated Parkinson's disease-like neurotoxicity by modulating the expression of 424 genes. Skladnev 2016
Saffron and crocin were shown to improve ethanol-induced learning impairment, in mice, preventing ethanol-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus; in addition, crocin (100 mg/kg) was shown to induced non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep in mice. Soeda 2016
Saffron (C. sativus; 30 mg/kg), as well as crocin (30 mg but not 15 mg), administered by injections started two weeks after constrictive nerve injury (a model of neuropathic pain), decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on days 26-40, in rats. Safakhah 2016
Crocin treatment attenuated oxidative stress induced by acute swimming exercise, via elevation of reduced glutathione levels and decrease in malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase enzyme levels, in rats. Altinoz 2016
Crocin (10-30mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) decreased blood glucose, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and increased glutathione levels and antioxidant activities, in diabetic rats. Samarghandian 2016
Crocin (30 mg/kg) and safranal (1 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally, significantly increased histamine-induced yawning in rats. Taati 2016
Saffron supplementation (orally, for 6 weeks) reduced myocardial damage and restored cardiac function in rabbit hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury ex vivo. Nader 2016
Crocetin administration (100mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, induced by UV-A irradiation, in the skin of mice. Ohba 2016
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) inhibited apoptosis induced by diazinon (a common organophosphate insecticide) in the aortic tissue of the rat. Razavi 2016
Crocin (20-40mg/kg/24h, for 20 days) ameliorated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Razmaraii 2016
Crocin (10-30 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) reduced the expression of the inflammatory genes, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the kidneys of aged rats. Samarghandian 2016
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily, for 20 days) attenuated morphine-induced liver damage, in rats. Salahshoor 2016
Pretreatment with Crocus sativus protected male rats from adverse effects of cadmium on fertility. Yari 2016
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) dose-dependently prevented adverse effects of nicotine on male fertility in mice. Salahshoor 2016
Saffron (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with resistance training, for 6 weeks, decreased serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin levels, in diabetic rats. Dehghan 2016
Pretreatment with crocin attenuated infarct size, myocardial apoptosis and necrosis, and improved left ventricular function following ischemia/reperfusion injury, in mice. Zeng 2016
Crocin (10-20 mg/kg, orally, for 3 weeks) ameliorated the myocardial toxicity of doxorubicin, in rats, as shown by improved ECG profiles and restored normal cardiac architecture. Elsherbiny 2016
Crocetin, as well as its combination with amino acids, reduced blood glucose, inhibited protein glycation, inflammation and oxidative stress, and ameliorated atherosclerosis in diabetic-atherosclerotic rats. Mahdavifard 2016
Saffron methanolic extract and its constituent crocin reduced mortality, restored locomotion, and attenuated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, while diminishing AChE activity and restoring dopamine levels, in a Drosophila model of parkinsonism. Rao 2016
Crocin inhibited L-type Ca(2+) current by up to 72.195% ± 1.54% and reduced cell shortening amplitude in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, in vitro, suggestive of cardioprotective effects. Liu 2016
Crocin showed anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties against chemically-induced liver cancer in rats, with network analysis of differentially expressed genes in tissues of animals suggesting the involvement of NF-κB as a potential regulatory hub. Amin 2016
Crocin ameliorated neutrophil apoptosis induced by the Vipera russelli snake venom. Santhosh 2016
In diabetic rats, crocins (saffron apocarotenoids; administered intraperitoneally) lowered serum glucose and protected the antioxidant system elements in the lens, while in vitro inhibition of α-crystallin glycation and aggregation was demonstrated, showing anti-cataract benefits. Bahmani 2016
Crocetin ester (25-50mg/kg) reduced serum contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde, activities of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and improved histopathological alteration, in a model of acute myocardial ischemia. Huang 2016
A hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (C. sativus; 200 mg/kg/day, orally, for 5 weeks) prevented blood pressure elevation in L-NAME-induced hypertensive, but not normotensive, rats. Nasiri 2015
Crocin (10-40 mg/kg/day, IP, for 14 days) reversed depressive-like behavior induced by malathion (an organophosphate insecticide), and restored BDNF levels in the hippocampus, in rats. Dorri 2015
Crocin prevented deterioration of extracellular matrix (notably, collagen-II and proteoglycan), induced by LPS in rat intervertebral discs ex vivo. Similarly, crocin suppressed catabolic and pro-inflammatory reactions in nucleus pulposus cells in vitro. Li 2015
Crocetin reduced the severity of ovalbumin-induced asthma, in mice, via TIPE2-dependent activation of Fox3 in regulatory T cells. Ding 2015
Saffron extract (C. sativus; 25-100 mg/kg, orally, for 2 weeks) decreased serum triglyceride and VLDL, and nearly normalized fasting blood glucose levels, in diabetic rats. The effects were associated with increases in serum adiponectin. No effect on cholesterol was noted. Hemmati 2015
An ethanolic extract of saffron (C. sativus; 5-10 μg/rat, for 1 week) ameliorated cognitive deficits in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Ghaffari 2015
Saffron extract decreased serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and VLDL, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and lipoprotein (a) levels in an animal model of diabetes, suggesting anti-atherogenic potential, among others. Hemmati 2015
Aqueous extract of saffron (C. sativus; 25-100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) protected rats from kidney stone formation induced by ethylene glycol, decreasing urinary oxalate calcium oxalate crystals kidney deposits, with no noted diuretic effect. Amin 2015
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg, IP) ameliorated behavioral (gait abnormalities) and histopathological brain damage, induced by acrylamide, in rats. Mehri 2015
Intraperitoneal and intra-hippocampal administration of crocin improved spatial memory indicators in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, and inhibited beta amyloid-induced apoptosis, possibly via antioxidative effects. Asadi 2015
Crocetin showed more potent antidepressant activities following acute (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) and sub-acute (12.5-50 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) administration, compared to crocin, in mice. Locomotor activity and coordination of animals were not affected. Amin 2015
Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10-40 µg/rat) and its combination with morphine (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each) suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The effect of crocin could not be attributed to the action on central opioid receptors. Tamaddonfard 2015
Crocin (25-50 mg/kg, injected i.p., for 6 weeks) restored decreased levels of zinc, insulin, and total antioxidant capacity and attenuated the increases in glucose and malondialdehyde, in diabetic rats. Positive interaction with zinc chloride was also observed. Asri-Rezaei 2015
Intraperitoneal injections of crocin (12.5-25 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25-0.5 mg/kg) suppressed formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats, and augmented the effects of morphine and diclofenac, albeit the involvement of opioid receptors was ruled out by co-administration of naloxone. Erfanparast 2015
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) ameliorated hepatotoxicity of nicotine (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) in mice. Jalili 2015
Crocin protected rat retina from ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. Chen 2015
Crocin suppressed the growth of breast tumors induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea, in rats, via induction of cell cycle arrest. Ashrafi 2015
Crocin ameliorated increases in the brain levels of malondialdehyde, amyloid-beta, and phospho-tau, induced by oral acrolein, in the brains of rats, via modulation of MAPKs signalling pathways. Rashedinia 2015
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron (80-160mg/kg) attenuated the intensity, duration and increased onset latency of harmaline-induced tremors in mice. Amin 2015
Crocetin ameliorated common burn-induced intestinal injury, in rats, via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and induction of antioxidative enzymes. Zhou 2015
Chronic (5-week) administration of safranal (1-4 mg/kg/day) reduced mean systolic blood pressure in a rat model of hypertension (desoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced), but not in normotensive rats. Imenshahidi 2015
Safranal showed anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and edema-attenuating effects in a rat model of traumatic injury to the spinal cord, with the dose of 100mg/kg identified as the most effective. Zhang 2015
Safranal was shown to inhibit induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, thereby reducing airway hyper-responsiveness, as well as provide antioxidant support in a mouse model of asthma. Bukhari 2015
Crocin suppressed airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity, as shown by reductions in the levels of inflammatory mediators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, in a mouse model of asthma. Xiong 2015
Pretreatment with crocin (20mg/kg) ameliorated traumatic brain injury-induced brain damage in mice, via activation of Notch signaling. Wang 2015
Safranal, administered for 4 weeks, reduced renal dysfunction and tissue damage in type 2 diabetic rats. Hazman 2015
Safranal treatment decreased inflammation markers (TNF-α and IL-1β, in particular) and oxidative stress in the plasma and pancreas tissues of type 2 diabetic mice. Hazman 2015
Crocin suppressed 100% of tumor growth in a mouse model. Combinations of crocin with E7-NT (gp96) DNA vaccine were less effective (~33.3%, compared with ~66.7% for the DNA vaccine alone), while the anti-tumor effects of picrocrocin were augmented. Khavari 2015
Crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) in combination with vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week), for 4 weeks), protected rat heart cells from protein degradation induced by exposure to diazinon. Razavi 2015
Safranal (0.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 1 month) ameliorated the increases in lipid peroxidation levels and decreases in the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities, in the brains of aged rats. Samarghandian 2015
Crocin treatment ameliorated oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the kidneys of diabetic rats, and decreased the elevated plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Altinoz 2015
An aqueous extract of saffron (40-160 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 21 days) showed antidepressant-like effects, and increased the levels of BDNF, CREB and p-CREB in the hippocampi, in rats. Ghasemi 2015
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneally) attenuated the hepatotoxicity of diazinon, a common insecticide, in rats. Lari 2015
An extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) attenuated myocardial damage induced by doxorubicin in rabbit hearts ex vivo. Pre-treatment was less effective than co-administration. Chahine 2014
A saffron extract (Crocus sativus; 30 mg/kg, IP) or crocin (30 mg/kg, IP), daily for 21 days, ameliorated oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidneys of a rat model of chronic stress. Bandegi 2014
Safranal (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated pain induced by spinal nerve transection and reduced the expression of glial activation markers and inflammatory cytokines, in rats. Zhu 2014
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus stigma (200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited oxidative stress, apoptosis, and decreased marker levels of inflammation, induced by chronic constrictive injury, in the spinal column of rats. Amin 2014
The hexane fraction of an alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (saffron) was found to have sexual stimulant effects, in rats. Al-Rehaily 2014
Saffron increased the acetylcholine response in deendothelialized segments from hypertensive but not normotensive rats; whereas crocetin, but not saffron extract, enhanced acetylcholine relaxation in the aortic rings from both hypertensive (especially) and normotensive rats. Mancini 2014
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus stigma (200 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased spinal cord levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury. Amin 2014
A hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals ameliorated acetominophen-induced liver injury, in rats. Omidi 2014
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) ameliorated cytogenetic damage (DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations) and histopathological changes in the testes of rats, induced by the antiepileptic drug sodium valporate. Sakr 2014
Oral administration (62.5-1000 mg/kg) of an essential oil recipe/supercritical CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron, and myrrh showed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in several mouse models. Zhang 2014
Pretreatment with crocetin (50mg/kg/day, intragastrically, for 7 days) mitigated the myocardial injury, induced by ischemia/reperfusion, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation, in a rat model. Wang 2014
Crocin (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased ethylene glycol-induced stone formation in the kidneys of rats. Ghaeni 2014
Saffron (100 mg/kg/day, orally, for 60 days) improved sperm membrane integrity, in rats. Vaez 2014
Anti-leishmanial activity of saffron (Crocus sativus) against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigote is reported. Yousefi 2014
Several types of saffron were compared for their anti-apoptoptic properties against human lung cancer cells in vitro and in mice (at the oral dose of 100 mg/kg/d for 28 days). Liu 2014
Saffron (40-80 mg/kg) decreased blood glucose levels and improved cognitive function in a rat model of diabetic encephalopathy. Samarghandian 2014
An ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals, administered intraperitoneally for 14 days, was not found to induce any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology, although, at the lowest dose, increased IgG levels, in rats. Babaei 2014
Saffron (100 mg/kg, for 60 days) was found to protect rat sperm from DNA damage and chromatin anomalies. Mardani 2014
Safranal, administered in drinking water, decreased tracheal responses to methacholine (a test drug for asthma) and ovalbumin, while modifying immune parameters, in sensitized guinea pigs. Boskabady 2014
Crocetin exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity against prostate cancer cell line tumors, implanted in mice, compared with crocin and saffron. All treatment types reduced prostate cancer cell invasion ability and migration. Festuccia 2014
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) improved the rates of maturation and subsequent fertilization in mouse oocytes, in vitro. Mokhber Maleki 2014
Safranal (0.25-0.75 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 25 days) decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (markers of oxidative stress and inflammation) and increased glutathione and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of diabetic mice. Samarghandian 2014
An aqueous extract of dried saffron (Crocus sativus; 120-240 mg/kg body weight, orally) increased urine output and the excretion of electrolytes, thus demonstrating diuretic activity, in rats. Shariatifar 2014
Saffron (Crocus sativus) and, in particular, safranal was reported to potently inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enhancing glucose uptake via translocation of glucose transporter 4, thus improving glucose tolerance in type-2 diabetic mice. Maeda 2014
Chronic (50-200 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks) crocin administration was shown to reduce mean systolic blood pressure in rats with hypertension induced by desoxycorticosterone acetate salt, but not in normotensive rats. The antihypertensive effect did not persist. Imenshahidi 2014
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 21 days) increased hippocampal levels of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both of which are associated with antidepressant action, as well as of VGF, in rats. Vahdati Hassani 2014
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 4 weeks) improved reduction of contractile and relaxant responses in the rat aorta induced by diazinon. Razavi 2014
Safranal (0.8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 10 days) improved nerve function, histopathology, muscular atrophy, and reduced cold and mechanical allodynia, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by crushed sciatic nerve. Tamaddonfard 2014
Crocins (50-30 mg/kg, i.p.), from Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated ketamine-induced hypermotility, stereotypies, and ataxia, and reversed ketamine-induced learning and social interaction deficits, in rats. Georgiadou 2014
Crocin (30-120 mg/kg intraperitoneally) dose-dependently decreased infarct volume by up to 74%, brain edema by up to 52%, and ameliorated oxidative stress, in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Vakili 2014
An aqueous extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (50-200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, three times a week for 4 weeks) ameliorated hepatic toxicity of diazinon in rats. Moallem 2014
A hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus prevented the increases in total white blood cell counts, and eosinophil and neutrophil percentages in the lung lavage fluid of ovalbumin-sensitized rats. Mahmoudabady 2013
A hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus; 50-200 mg/kg, 2 times a week, for a period of 32 days) counteracted the increases in eosinophil, but not neutrophil, counts in a rat model of asthma. Vosooghi 2013
Pretreatment with saffron (Crocus sativus; 100 mg/kg b.w., IP) ameliorated toxic effects of cadmium on the semen of rats. Asadi 2013
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma (10-40 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks) reduced mean systolic blood pressure in hypertensive, but not in normotensive, rats. Imenshahidi 2013
Crocin (25-100 mg/kg) and safranal (0.5-2 mg/kg) suppressed the inflammatory pain response, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and attenuated edema in carrageenan-induced model of local inflammation and pain, in rats. Tamaddonfard 2013
Crocetin induced inhibition of proliferation and apoptotic cell death in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, but not in normal human fibroblasts, in vitro, and inhibited the tumor progression in a rat model. Bathaie 2013
An extract of Crocus sativus, as well as safranal, administered in drinking water, decreased serum levels of inflammatory markers endothelin and total protein in sensitized guinea pigs, comparably with dexamethasone. Gholamnezhad 2013
Pretreatment with saffron (1 mg/kg for 2-10 d) protected rat photoreceptors from damage due to bright light exposure. Marco 2013
Crocin (150mg/kg) improved mechanical behavior and locomotor function by normalizing plasma levels of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), in a rat model of chronic pain due to spinal cord contusion. Karami 2013
Crocetin (8 mg/kg i.p.) attenuated learning dysfunction and was found to properly protect cerebrocortical and hippocampal neurons, in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a type of vascular dementia. Tashakori-Sabzevar 2013
Pre-treatment with saffron-supplemented drinking water (0.01% w/v) protected dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra and nigra, in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Purushothuman 2013
Saffron (0.08% diet) decreased fasting blood glucose (by 47%) and induced increase in the size of the pancreas, as well as reducing levels of triglycerides and having an antioxidant effect, in severely diabetic, high-fat diet-fed rats. Bajerska 2013
A saffron extract (60 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally on postnatal days 9 and 12) prevented cataract formation, induced by sodium selenite (20 µmol/kg body weight subcutaneously on postnatal day 10), in rat pups. Makri 2013
Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of saffron mitigated the increases intracellular ROS concentrations, restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, and suppressed proteome changes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, in a rat model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Pan 2013
Crocin (20-80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 10 days) accelerated recovery following sciatic nerve crush injury, in rats. Tamaddonfard 2013
Safranal (291 mg/kg IP) ameliorated lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage induced by quinolinic acid, an excitotoxin, in the hippocampi of rats. Sadeghnia 2013
Crocin (12.5-50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) attenuated reductions in systolic blood pressure, elevation of the heart rate, and increases in aortic malondealdehyde levels, induced by diazinon, in rats. Razavi 2013
An aqueous extract of Crocus sativus (20-160 mg/kg/day IP for 8 days) showed cardioprotective activity, preserving heart tissue architecture and ameliorating increases in serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activity, in isoproterenol-treated rats. Mehdizadeh 2013
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) blocked chemically induced gastric cancer progression in rats. Bathaie 2013
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus; 50-200 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days) showed protective effects against lethal cardiac arrythmias induced by heart ischemia-reperfusion, in rats. Joukar 2013
Oral administration of saffron completely prevented the formation of oral squamous cell carcinomas, induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, in hamsters. Manoharan 2013
Crocin reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro and decreased tumor weight and size in HL-60 xenograft tumor-bearing mice. Sun 2013
Crocin (25-50 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks) ameliorated cardiotoxicity of diazinon (a common insecticide) in rats. Razavi 2013
A Crocus sativus extract decreased serum IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (Th1/Th2 balance) more effectively than dexomethasone in a guinea pig model of asthma and tracheal hyperresponsiveness. Byrami 2013
Crocin (15-60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 6 weeks) reduce blood glucose level, along with exhibiting antioxidant activity, in diabetic rats. Rajaei 2013
Crocetin (20mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal damage in mice. Ishizuka 2013
Pretreatment of viper venom with crocin mitigated platelet related effects of the venom. Santhosh 2013
Crocetin administration (3 mg/kg) improved blood indices related to disseminated intravascular coagulation (a life-threatening complication in several diseases), such as platelet counts and blood plasma fibrinogen concentration, as well as fibrin deposition in the glomeruli, in rabbits. Tsantarliotou 2013
Orally administered crocin (100 mg/kg for 21 days) improved cognitive performance in a model of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, in rats. Naghizadeh 2013
Crocin enhanced the survival of retinal ganglion cells and reduced apoptosis of the cells, in an animal model of retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Qi 2013
An extract of saffron (Crocus sativus; 60 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 6 days) attenuated changes in monoamine oxidase activity, associated with aluminium toxicity, in the brains of rats, with no effect on cognitive performance. Linardaki 2013
Crocin (50-100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) decreased levels of serum glucose, advanced glycation end products, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, increased high-density lipoprotein, as well as ameliorated microalbuminuria and insulin resistance, in diabetic rats. Shirali 2013
Crocin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -3, and 13) in the articular chondrocytes, and ameliorated cartilage degeneration in the model of osteoarthritis, in rabbits. Ding 2013
Crocin, a constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus), showed potent antioxidant activity against Russel's viper (Vipera russelli) venom-induced oxidative stress, restored hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and platelet count, and suppressed inflammation in experimental animals. Sebastin Santhosh 2013
Dietary feeding with crocin (for at least 4 weeks) inhibited chemically induced colitis and associated development of colonic adenocarcinomas in mice. Kawabata 2012
An extract of Crocus sativus (0.1-0.4 mg/mL), as well as one of its constituents, safranal (4-16 μg/ml), administered via drinking water, improved total and differential white blood cell counts in a guinea pig model of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Bayrami 2012
An aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) was shown to attenuate morphine-induced memory impairment in mice. Naghibi 2012
Crocins (30-50 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated obsessive-compulsive disorder-like behavior, induced by a serotonin receptor agonist, in rats. Georgiadou 2012
Safranal, a constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus), attenuated photoreceptor cell degeneration and loss of retinal function, in rats. Fernández-Sánchez 2012
Crocin (200 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally, for 7 days) ameliorated the toxicity of beryllium chloride (BeCl2) to the livers and brains of rats. El-Beshbishy 2012
Orally administered crocetin (100 mg/kg) suppressed apoptosis and cell number reduction, induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in the retinal ganglion cell layer, in mice. Ohno 2012
A Crocus sativus extract, as well as safranal, ameliorated lung pathology and inflammation, induced by ovalbumin sensitization, in guinea-pigs. Boskabady 2012
Safranal increased the duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, shortened NREM sleep latency, and enhanced the delta power activity of NREM sleep, in pentobarbital-treated mice. Liu 2012
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus (50-200 mg/kg, i.p., for 7 days) and safranal (0.025-0.1 mg/kg), but not crocin (50 mg/kg) attenuated behavioral symptoms of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, in rats. Amin 2012
Crocin (100-200 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with chlorpheniramine (compared with either of the agents alone) alleviated inflammation in histamine-induced rat paw edema model. Tamaddonfard 2012
One-week consumption of saffron (Crocus sativus; 50-200 mg/kg/day) affected various electrocardiogram parameters, without influencing blood pressure, in rats. Joukar 2012
An extract of Crocus sativus (saffron) prevented D-galactose and sodium nitrite induced memory impairment and improved learning and memory deficits in amnesic mice. Dashti-R 2012
Crocin (20 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 21 days) increased catalase activity and partially suppressed cardiac reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, in rats. Jahanbakhsh 2012
A hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus induced electrophysiological remodeling of the atrioventricular node (AV node) in rabbit hearts during arterial fibrillation. Khori 2012
Crocin (30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the total time of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep by 60% and 170%, respectively, in mice; while crocetin (100 mg/kg) increased the total non-REM sleep time by 50%. The amount of REM sleep was not changed. Masaki 2012
Safranal (0.1-0.5 mL/kg/day, i.p., for 14 days) pretreatment decreased infarct size and improved left ventricular function and the overall hemodynamic status of the myocardium, in a rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Bharti 2012
An aqueous solution of crocin or hydroalcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus), administered intraperitoneally for 5 days, improved spatial learning and memory in rats following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Hosseinzadeh 2012
Aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus; 200-800 mg/kg, orally, for four weeks) showed cardioprotective effect, preserving hemodynamics and left ventricular function, in rats with chemically induced cardiac damage, with the median dose (400 mg/kg) being most effective. Sachdeva 2012
An ethanolic extract (10-50 mg/kg, i.p.) of saffron (Crocus sativus) and safranal (1-10 mg/kg), its constituent, attenuated morphine-induced place preference in mice. Ghoshooni 2011
Crocetin reduced oxidative stress in the isolated brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. After oral administration, high levels of crocetin were detected in the plasma and the brain of the rats. Yoshino 2011
Crocetin therapy recovered neurological scores in rats following cerebral contusion, after 7-15 days; inhibited neuronal apoptosis 72 h following treatment; and increased angiogenesis as shown by the levels of VEGFR2 and serum response factor. Bie 2011
Crocus sativus (saffron) extract, injected for 21 days, suppressed the impairments of spatial learning and memory retention, induced by chronic stress, in rats. The effects were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Ghadrdoost 2011
Saffron (75-300 mg/kg/day for 22 weeks) showed chemopreventive effects against diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer, in rats. Amin 2011
Saffron water extract (prepared from dried saffron using maceration), administered intraperitoneally (1-10 mg/kg), as well as safranal, prevented stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and behavioral changes (anorexia, sniffing, rearing, locomotion), in rats. Hooshmandi 2011
An aqueous, but not ethanolic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) as well as its constituent crocin (both administered intraperitoneally) ameliorated stress-induced anorexia and prevented weight gain reduction, in mice. Halataei 2011
A hydroethanolic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) inhibited postsynaptic potentials evoked by focal electric stimulation, and suppressed glutamate-, kainate, and NMDA-induced membrane depolarization in rat cortical brain slices. The effect could partially be ascribed to (trans)-crocetin. Berger 2011
Daily, intraperitoneal administration of saffron for 7 days elicited improvements in learning and memory, reduced lipid peroxidation products, and increased total brain antioxidant activity, in healthy adult and aged mice. Papandreou 2011
Concurrent administration of crocetin (2 mg/kg) during resuscitation increased the survival of rats and attenuated hepatic apoptosis, following hemorrhagic shock. Yang 2011
Aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus; 200 mg/kg/day for 45 days) showed an ameliorative effect on aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced brain neurotoxicity, in mice. Shati 2011
Safranal (0.025-0.05 ml/kg) and crocin (50 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally, alleviated the hematological toxicity induced by diazinon, but could not prevent the chemical-induced genotoxicity, in rats. Hariri 2011
Alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (1.56-50 mg/kg, orally) potentiated Th2-, but not Th1-mediated immune response, increasing CD19+ B cells, IL-4, as well as IgG-1 and IgM, but not IL-2 and IFN-γ levels, in vivo. Bani 2011
Crocetin (100mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited photoreceptor degeneration and retinal dysfunction in mice exposed to white light. In vitro, the compound prevented oxidant-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells by 50-60%. Yamauchi 2011
The effect of safranal (the constituent responsible for the aroma of saffron) on histamine H1 receptors was studied in guinea pig tracheal chains. Boskabady 2011
Crocus sativus (40-80 mg/k/d for 10 days) alleviated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, as shown by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and histological evaluation, in rats. Ajami 2010
Saffron (Crocus sativus) ameliorated the hepatotoxicity (as shown by increases in liver biomarker levels and lipid peroxidation) induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in mice. Shati 2010
Genetic effects (modulation of expression of genes and noncoding RNAs) underlying the protective effects of dietary saffron (1 mg/kg/day for 21 days) against bright light-induced photoreceptor damage were elucidated in rats. Natoli 2010
Crocin (30 mg/kg) attenuated cognitive impairment induced by streptozotocin in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Khalili 2010
Investigation of antidepressant properties of stigmas & corms of Crocus sativus using immobility time in forced swimming test & tail suspending tests which were significantly reduced by the two fractions, showing that the low polarity parts of C. sativus could be considered for depression. Wang 2010
Assessment of the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) on rats' heart with isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury suggests the protective role of saffron on ischemic hearts by biochemical and histopathological findings. Joukar 2010
The effects of saffron stigma aq. extract & two active constituents, crocin & safranal, were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive & desoxy-corticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats which showed that safranal is more important than crocin for lowering blood pressure. Imenshahidi 2010
Evaluation of the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma and its constituents on morphine-withdrawal syndrome in mice shows that the extracts and crocin may interact with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Hosseinzadeh 2010
Evaluation of the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of saffron and its active constituent, crocin, in hyperlipidemic rats found saffron to be superior to crocin indicating the involvement of other potential constituents of saffron apart from crocin for its synergistic behavior. Asdaq 2010
Crocin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and may be one of the active ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or Crocus sativus L. that can modulate inflammatory processes. Xu 2009
Evaluation of the effect of ethanol extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice revealed that saffron is effective in the prevention of EAE by inhibition of oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration to CNS. Ghazavi 2009
The anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of saffron aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were studied in mice and confirmed. Hosseinzadeh 2009
The aphrodisiac activities of Crocus sativus stigma aqueous extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated in male rats which confirmed aphrodisiac activity of saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin. Hosseinzadeh 2008
A study conducted by continuous light exposure in the albino rat retina showed that saffron may protect photoreceptors from retinal stress, maintaining both morphology and function and probably acting as a regulator of programmed cell death. Maccarone 2008
The efficacy of pollen of saffron extract cream in the treatment of thermal induced burn wounds was evaluated and compared with results on silver sulfadiazine in rats. The results suggest potential efficacy of saffron in accelerating wound healing in burn injuries. Khorasani 2008
It is indicated that treatment with Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., induces anxiolytic-like effects in the rat model. Pitsikas 2008
[Effects of crocus sativus on the fetal development of NMRI mice]. Golalipour 2008
It is suggested that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and may be a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia. Zheng 2007
Investigation on the effect of crocetin on insulin resistance and its related abnormalities induced by high-fructose diet in male Wistar rats suggest the potential of crocetin treatment as a preventive strategy of insulin resistance and related diseases. Xi 2007
It is demonstrated that safranal ,an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, could exert anticonvulsant activity in the pentylenetetrazol model and the effect may be mediated, at least partly, through GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex. Hosseinzadeh 2007
Norepinephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats revealed that the cardioprotective effects of crocetin are related to modulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities. Comparing crocetin with captopril, antioxidant activity is a key factor in the therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. Shen 2006
Study on the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus (CS)) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats suggests the effectiveness of CS in focal ischemia most probably by virtue of its antioxidant property. Saleem 2006
Examination of hypolipidemic mechanism of crocin, an active ingredient in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Crocus sativus L, in rats, suggests that crocin yielded its hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, leading to malabsorption of fat and cholesterol. Sheng 2006
The effects of extracts of Crocus sativus L. (CSE), on memory were investigated in the rat by using object recognition and step-through passive avoidance tasks which showed that CSE antagonize memory impairments in different behavioral tasks in the rat. Pitsikas 2006
The antitussive activity of Crocus sativus stigma & petal extracts & its components, safranal & crocin, was evaluated using the nebulized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs which showed that the ethanolic extract of C. sativus and safranal reduced the number of coughs. Hosseinzadeh 2006
A study using comet assay in mice to ascertain the chemoprotective potential of saffron against the genotoxicity of 3 anti-tumor drugs- cisplatin, cyclophosphamide & mitomycin-C found a potential role for saffron as an anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant & chemopreventive agent. Premkumar 2006
The effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of Greek saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary a-tocopherol using ninety-six Lohmann laying hens. Botsoglou 2006
Investigation of neuromodulatory effects of crocetin (active constituent of Crocus sativus) in a 6-hydroxydopamine model of rat Parkinsonism found it was helpful in preventing Parkinsonism and has therapeutic potential. Ahmad 2005
A study conducted in experimental hyperlipemia rats revealed that crocin prevents atherosclerosis in hyperlipemia, which may be mediated by the inhibition of both proliferation of smooth muscle cells and activation of p38MAPK. [Article in Chinese] Xu 2005
N-095, a crude drug which includes saffron, increased forced swimming time in mice & prevented gastric ulcers in rats under restraint & water immersion stress conditions. It also prevented footpad swelling in rats treated with lambda-carrageenin and histamine-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Inoue 2005
An investigation of ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus concluded that safranal has some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in hippocampal tissue from ischemic rats Hosseinzadeh 2005
The aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, may be useful agents for the prevention of renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative injury in rats. Hosseinzadeh 2005a
The anticonvulsant activities of Crocus sativus stigma constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated using pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice which revealed that safranal showed anticonvulsant activity whereas crocin did not. Hosseinzadeh 2005b
Evaluation of the interactive effects of saffron with garlic and curcumin for anti-genotoxicity against cyclophosphamide in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test found the protective effects were more pronounced in the garlic-administered groups than in the curcumin or saffron administered groups. Premkumar 2004
Crocetin of saffron increases alveolar oxygen transport and enhances pulmonary oxygenation; it improves cerebral oxygenation in hemorrhaged rats and has a positive effect in the atherosclerosis and arthritis treatment. Giaccio 2004
Effects of an aqueous infusion of saffron on 2 stage skin papillogenesis /carcinogenesis in mice initiated by 7-12 dimethyl benz[a] anthracin & promoted with croton oil were investigated revealing that Saffron can prevent chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Das 2004
The modifying effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin cyclophosphamide, mitomycin-C and urethane induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Premkumar 2003
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron stigma and petal have an antinociceptive effect, as well as acute and/or chronic anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Hosseinzadeh 2002
Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with saffron may significantly inhibit the genotoxicity of cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C and urethane. Premkumar 2001
Saffron extract improved ethanol-induced impairments of learning behaviors in mice, and prevented ethanol-induced inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation, a form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Abe 2000
Alcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (CSE) (250 mg/kg, p.o.) effective in preventing acetaldehyde-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats suggests that CSE can prevent aversive effects induced by ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde. Abe 1999
Long-term treatment with crocin enhances survival selectively in female rats with colon cancer without major toxic effects. The effects of crocin might be related to its strong cytotoxic effect on cultured tumor cells. García-Olmo 1999
Concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. el Daly 1998
Saffron delayed ascites tumor growth and increased the life span of the treated mice compared to untreated controls by 45-120%. In addition, it delayed the onset of papilloma growth, decreased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma in treated mice. Nair 1995
Results of a study on effects of Crocus sativus (CS) on the ethanol-induced impairment of passive avoidance performances in mice suggest that CS-extract ameliorates the impairment effects of ethanol on learning and memory processes, and possesses a sedative effect. Zhang 1994
Antitumor activity of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract was studied against intraperitoneally transplanted sarcoma-180 (S-180), Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumors in mice. Nair 1991
In mice, an extract of Crocus sativus stigmas partially prevented the decreases in body weight, hemoglobin levels and leucocyte counts caused by 2 mg/kg of cisplatin i.p. for 5 days. Nair 1991a
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Rasheed Rabata
April 2019
LATEST UPDATES BY: Julie Dennis
November 2021