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Crocus sativus
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Analytical Chemistry
High-performance liquid chromatography determined the presence of the toxic alkaloid colchicine in Colchicum autumnale corms, which is often mistaken for Crocus sativus (saffron). Analysis also determined that all Crocus raw materials did not contain colchicine. Mykhailenko 2021
One new compound (crocusatin M), three new glycosides (crocusatins N-P), and nine known compounds were identified from Crocus sativus (saffron) dried stigmas, with two of the new compunds exhibiting weak anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Fang 2021
A HPLC study characterized the content of major metabolites (crocin, picrocrocin, safranal) in Crocus sativus (saffron) stigmas cultivated in Ukraine. Mykhailenko 2021
An HPLC-DAD-MS study determined the content of crocins in liquid saffron (Crocus sativus) extracts (Saffr'activ®), finding degradation occurring following only one week of storage under specific light and temperature conditions. Suchareau 2021
An extensive review of solvents and extraction methods, including green solvents and novel extraction methods, tested on saffron (Crocus sativus) and 5 other antioxidant-containing herbs is presented. Oreopoulou 2021
Analysis of saffron (Crocus sativus) samples from various countries (Greece, Italy, Morocco, Iran, India, Afghanistan, and Kashmir) via ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR MS) identified differences in the phytochemical profiles whch could be used as markers. Gikas 2021
A study reported lower picrocrocin and higher safranal content in microwave-dried Crocus sativus stigmae compliant with Category I saffron according to International Standard Organization (ISO) 3632. García-Blázquez 2021
In a study of Iranian Crocus sativus flower parts that may be used as adulterants of saffron stigmas, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside (62.19-99.48 mg/g) was the main constituent in the tepals, whereas the most abundant compound in the stamens was kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (1.72-7.44 mg/g). Mottaghipisheh 2020
A study investigated the polyphenol content of saffron (Crocus sativus) flower biowaste, revealing presence of quercetin-3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, as well as antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. Sun 2020
A GC-MS study identified 93 volatiles in saffron (Crocus sativus) to determine markers of freshness and authenticity (e.g. safranal, 2-caren-10-al, ketoisophorone, and safranal) and to assess the impact of roasting on aroma. Farag 2020
Near-infrared, but not mid-infrared spectroscopy, showed good performance in determining authenticity as well as adulteration with common plant-derived adulterants (saffron style, calendula, safflower, and rubia) of Iranian saffron samples. Amirvaresi 2020
A method incorporating high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) with multivariate image analysis achieved 99.14% recognition, with 1.96% error rate, in the authentication and detection of common adulterants of Iranian saffron. Amirvaresi 2020
Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry(GC/MS) evaluated the content of organic acids (lactic, glycolic, and malic) in saffron (Crocus sativus) stigmas. Jarukas 2020
An HPLC method, based on the evaluation of total crocin content following alkali-mediated conversion of crocins to crocetin, was established for quality control of saffron-containing products. Reddy 2020
Gas-chromatographic analysis of triacylglycerols and isotoic values allowed researchers to distinguish Iranian vs. Greek saffron samples by geographical origin. Bononi 2020
A sensitive and fast MALDI-MS/MS method for the assessment of saffron adulteration using picrocrocin as the saffron authenticity marker and curcumin as the non-isotopic isobaric internal standard identified Gardenia jasminoides as an adulterant in commercial samples. Aiello 2020
A combination of headspace flash gas-chromatography and chemometrics showed promise as a rapid and low-cost screening method for the detection of saffron adulteration with turmeric (Curcuma longa) and marigold (Calendula officinalis). Morozzi 2019
An analytical study determined the content and stability of anthocyanins and kaempferol (mainly kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside) in floral bio-residues of saffron (Crocus sativus), which may be used as food or as active ingredients in cosmetics. Moratalla-López 2019
In a study of 104 commercial saffron samples from 16 countries, 20 samples were found to contain dyes. Analysis showed adulteration with novel magenta- and pink-colored dyes which are regarded as possibly carcinogenic. Bhooma 2019
An UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS metabolomic-based study identified anthocyanins and glycosidic flavonols as the best markers to detect adulteration of saffron with other floral components. Senizza 2019
A HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for detection of common adulterants (corn stigma, chrysanthemum, and safflower) in saffron viasimultaneous determination of constituents including allantoin, chlorogenic acid, and hydroxysafflor yellow A. Kong 2019
Using a targeted search for differentially expressed uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases in Crocus transcriptomes, a novel apocarotenoid glucosyltransferase (UGT709G1) from saffron was identified which may be suited for biosynthesis of picrocrocin, the precursor of safranal. Diretto 2019
A review of current research on the chemistry of Crocus sativus flower (stigmas, styles, tepals, and stamens), including methods for identification and quantitation of the molecular constituents, is presented with a focus on bioactivity and bioavailability. Moratalla-López 2019
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS/MS) identified 54 compounds in the tepals, stigmas, and stamens of Crocus sativus. Coniferin and crocin-2 were found in stigmas and the content of flavonoids was higher in tepals compared with stigmas. Xu 2019
Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MSn) analysis detailed structural elucidation of known as well as previously unknown crocin derivatives in the stigmas of Crocus sativus. Pittenauer 2019
Combined use of the established ISO3632 procedure, microscopic examination, and DNA barcoding allowed for the most complete authentication of commercial saffron samples, including the presence of adulterants. Khilare 2019
The volatile profile of saffron spice was examined using Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. Silvis 2019
A method was developed for PCR-based authentication of the presence of saffron (Crocus sativus) in crude and processed herbal drugs. Yuan 2018
A step-gradient centrifugal partition chromatography method for the isolation of crocins, picrocrocin, and crocetin Crocus sativus stigma hydroalcoholic extract is described; structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Karkoula 2018
Phytochemical analysis using GC-MS and HPLC methods and ISSR markers used for genetic characterization found Crocus sativus and C. laevigatus to be more distinct than C. cartwrightianus and C. oreocreticus. Lamari 2018
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) resolution revealed a higher number of crocetin esters in Crocus sativus than those already characterised by mass-spectrometry data and HPLC. D'Archivio 2018
A method was developed for detection of carminic acid (a natural dye of insect origin) in saffron; determination down to 0.2, w/w was achieved by RP-HPLC-DAD using aqueous acetonitrile elution solvent (pH=2.8). Ordoudi 2018
A novel UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method revealed variations in the contents of 10 isomers and isoforms of crocin, which were attributed to differences in age, origin, and processing techniques (particularly drying conditions) applied to saffron samples. Rocchi 2018
Extracts of Crocus sativus stigmas and tepals + anthers were compared for chemical profile and biological activity. Among the findings, stigma water extracts were shown to be the most effective antioxidants, while olive oil was found to be the solvent of choice for tepals + anthers extracts. Menghini 2018
60Co-γ irradiation sterilization of saffron samples at doses at or below 10 kGy had no significant effect on 40 characteristic chemical components, as shown by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Luo 2018
High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented for the authentication of foods, including saffron, with a particular focus on geographical origin characterization, ageing determination, and fraud detection. Consonni 2018
Thirty-five compounds, including cis and trans-crocetin esters (crocins), cis-crocetin, trans-crocetin, safranal, and 11 picrocrocin derivatives were detected in pure saffron stigmas using a novel UHPLC-DAD-MS method. Gardenia-specific compounds as typical adulterant markers were also detected. Moras 2018
Using UV-Vis and GC-FID techniques, 2-year storage was shown to reduce saffron color intensity while increasing aroma. Freshly dried samples exhibited higher levels of crocins while stored samples were more abundant in safranal. Sereshti 2018
Sixty-seven active glycosidases were identified in saffron crocus stigma using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). Husaini 2018
A combination of HPLC/DAD, GC/MS, NIR spectroscopy, and chemometrics revealed picrocrocin and two types of crocins to be the discriminating variables between Chinese and Iranian saffron samples, with higher content of safranal and picrocrocin in Chinese samples. Liu 2018
Combination of Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and HPLC-DAD was used to characterize secondary metabolites in Crocus sativus stigmas, stamens, and tepals. Cusano 2018
Evolution of proposed ISO methods for extraction and determination of saffron apocarotenoids since 1980, in parallel to other approaches, is presented. Novel extraction techniques and analytical tools that require limited or no sample preparation are also discussed. Kyriakoudi 2018
Rapid determination of crocin I and II in saffron was performed by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques. Li 2018
A novel image-processing strategy for the TLC analysis of saffron was developed. The effects of salinity on the chemical fingerprint, as well as the quality of saffron from different areas of Iran were assessed. Sereshti 2018
Forty saffron specimens from different countries and regions were ranked were ranked according to quality. Thirteen main apocarotenoids and HPLC/MS chemical fingerprints of saffron were determined. Xiaobin 2018
The review addresses the on-going research on methods for quality evaluation of saffron, including chemical composition, authenticity and adulteration, artificial colorants, and various quality parameters. [Article in Chinese] Liu 2017
The shelf of an Ayurvedic preparation with Crocus sativus stigma as a primary ingredient was established as 16 months. Prajapati 2017
Cold plasma (argon gas with 0-10% oxygen at 8-12 kV of voltage) induced formation of isophorone and 4-ketoisophorone from crocin esters and blackening of saffron volatile oil, depending on oxygen and voltage levels. Amini 2017
A novel method, focusing on kaempferol glycosides, was developed for authenticity and adulteration analysis of saffron. Guijarro-Díez 2017
The ISO 3632 (2011) UV-Vis method for safranal quantity determination in saffron and an HPLC-DAD method were compared and no correlation was found between the results obtained. The over-estimation observed with the UV-vis method was related to the cis-crocetin esters contents. García-Rodríguez 2017
Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics were used for the detection of adulteration of saffron (C. sativus stigma) with other plant material, achieving 99% success rate at 5-20% adulteration levels. Petrakis 2017
A 1H NMR-based method of detection of Sudan I-IV dyes in saffron (C. sativus) is presented, reportedly for the first time. Petrakis 2017
More secondary compounds, and higher antioxidant and tumoricidal properties were observed in organically, as compared with inorganically, produced saffron of Iranian origin. Behdani 2016
The chemistry, biosynthesis, and biological function of apocarotenoids (plant compounds that include crocin and picrocrocin from saffron, as well as compounds from other plants) are reviewed. Beltran 2016
Applicability of machine vision for saffron (C. sativus) quality characterization is discussed. Kiani 2016
Differences in crocin contents allowed differentiation of saffron (C. sativus) samples from different location in Italy. D'Archivio 2016
A low-cost and simple headspace liquid-phase microextraction device for the extraction and determination of safranal in saffron was reportedly fabricated. Ghiasvand 2016
Crocins in saffron (C. sativus stigmas) were investigated using MALDI-based mass spectrometric imaging. Pittenauer 2016
A method for the determination of saffron "age" (storage time) for quality control purposes was developed, utilizing FT-IR and NMR metabolomics. Consonni 2016
Using pattern recognition analysis, eleven biomarkers (9 secondary metabolites: safranal, α- and β-isophorone, ketoisophorone, among others; linoleic acid and nanocosanol) were established to represent GC-MS chromatographic fingerprint of saffron (C. sativus). Aliakbarzadeh 2016
Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), a novel, non-destructive analytical technique, was found to be applicable for detection of lower quality saffron, characterized by safranal losses due to storage at 25-40°C for 5 weeks, in commercial material. Nenadis 2016
Saffron (Crocus sativus) samples from Italy and Iran were analyzed for their contents of crocins, picrocrocin, safranal, and flavonoids, as well as aroma compounds, by HPLC and PTR-TOF-MS, respectively. Masi 2016
A reference extract prepared from gardenia yellow was found suitable for the analysis of crocins in Croci Stigma. [Article in Chinese] He 2015
Crocetin esters and picrocrocin levels were quantified in saffron (C. sativus) cultivated in China, stored for up to 15 years, using a newly developed HPLC method. The losses of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in saffron within 1 year of storage were 52.2% and 54.3%, respectively. Tong 2015
Potential novel authenticity markers of saffron (34 metabolites, including various kaempferol glycosides) were identified using LC/MS analysis. Guijarro-Díez 2015
An HPLC method was developed for the determination of picrocrocin and five major crocins in saffron (Crocus sativus) as well as other Crocus spp., reportedly for the first time. Koulakiotis 2015
Petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) cultivated in the province of L'Aquila, the Abruzzo region of Italy, were identified as a potential source of the antioxidant compounds crocin (0.6% dry weight) and kaempferol (12.6). Zeka 2015
An improvement is proposed to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography analysis of saffron. Jiang 2015
Chemometric analysis of spectrophotometric data was attempted for determination of saffron adulteration with synthetic colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow. Masoum 2015
A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus). Quantitatively, ketones were the most dominant volatiles, followed by aldehydes and acids. Nine aroma-active compounds were detected in an aromatic extract. Amanpour 2015
Extraction and stability of anthocyanins from saffron (Crocus sativus) tepals was improved by using sulfur solutions (metabisulfite, 100-2,000 ppm), compared to acidified ethanol solution at similar extraction conditions. Lotfi 2015
A gas-chromatography method for quantitation of safranal in saffron (Crocus sativus) was developed, for the purposes of commercial grading. Bononi 2015
A 1H NMR method was developed for detecting adulteration of authenticated Greek saffron (Crocus sativus) with four typical plant-based bulking agents (saffron stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia), with the detection level of 20% (w/w). Petrakis 2015
Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, and Sunset Yellow were identified as synthetic dyes in restaurant food items purported to contain saffron, in Iran. Moradi-Khatoonabadi 2015
Cooking conditions (boiling at 100 °C) did not affect picrocrocin levels, while adversely affecting the concentrations of crocins and safranal, in saffron from La Mancha region. Rodríguez-Neira 2014
Mineral composition (Li, B, Na, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Sm, and Hf) determined by ICP-MS was used as a compound marker of the geographical origin of Italian saffron. D'Archivio 2014
The chemistry and uses of crocins and crocetin, the main pigment compounds in saffron (Crocus sativus), are reviewed, with an emphasis on their use as natural dyes. Bathaie 2014
Fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, mainly kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, in floral bioresidues obtained in saffron (Crocus sativus) spice production. Serrano-Díaz 2014
Transmission Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy data were utilized to develop quiality control parameters for traded saffron, with relevance for sensory properties that weaken during storage. Ordoudi 2014
A method to obtain purified crocin-1 and trans-crocetin from an ethanol-water (2:8) extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) is presented. Lautenschläger 2014
Volatile components of saffron were isolated by a combined extraction method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sereshti 2014
A HPLC method of quantitation of crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal, compatible with ISO 3632, for the determination of saffron quality was developed and validated. Valle García-Rodríguez 2014
Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in saffron samples from Istanbul, Turkey, were determined to be 1.7 μg/kg and 1 μg/kg, respectively. Hacıbekiroğlu 2013
The molecular structures of crocin and crocetin were investigated by electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. Pittenauer 2013
Highly glucosylated crocins were analyzed in the tepals of several Crocus species, reportedly for the first time. Rubio Moraga 2013
The occurrence of synthetic dyes in saffron was evaluated using green liquid chromatography. Only 8% of the samples were found to comply with Iranian National Standards. Hajimahmoodi 2013
Eight glycosides, including a new safranal glycoside and a new carotenoid pigment, were isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. The structures of the new compounds were determined. Tung 2013
The antioxidant potential of parts of Crocus sativus flowers, other than stigmas, was evaluated in several in vitro assays. Serrano-Díaz 2012
The metabolic profiles of different extracts (obtained from petals, stamens and flowers) of Crocus sativus were characterized using LC-ESI-MS. A high variety of glycosylated flavonoids is noted. Montoro 2012
Analysis of monosaccharides in the saffron corm glycoconjugate was performed. [Article in Chinese] Ma 2012
A simple micellar capillary electrochromatographic (MEKC) method for the quantification of crocins, picrocrocins, and safranal in Crocus sativus stigmas was developed. Gonda 2012
Various tandem mass spectrometric techniques were evaluated for their usefulness in structural elucidation of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus. Koulakiotis 2012
Sunset Yellow food coloring was detected in artificial saffron. Ates 2011
An HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS method was used to identify saffron (Crocus sativus) adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric) at various concentrations, while the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method failed to detect adulteration or wrongly classified saffron material. Sabatino 2011
Stable isotope (H, C, and N) analysis was used to correctly discriminate 100% of saffron samples according to their geographic place of origin. Maggi 2011
Chemical composition of the liposoluble (ether) fractions of the stamen, perianth, and stigma of saffron (Crocus sativus) was examined. Both the stamen and perianth exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Zheng 2011
The phenolic compound content of Crocus sativus corms was evaluated by GC-MS. Of the 11 compounds identified, gentisic acid presented the highest content. Esmaeili 2011
The kinetics of picrocrocin (precursor of safranal) in aqueous extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus) upon thermal treatment were studied. Sánchez 2011
The phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles of saffron (Crocus sativus), and the antioxidant activities of its extracts were examined. Gallic acid and pyrogallol were identified as two of the active compounds. Karimi 2011
The feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for predicting the content of crocetin esters (crocins) & coloring strength was assessed against the reference methods (liquid chromatography and UV-vis spectrophotometry) and found to give data with acceptable accuracy. Anastasaki 2010
Volatile components of saffron from different regions of Iran were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) was proposed for resolving the co-eluted GC-MS peak clusters into pure chromatograms and mass spectra. Jalali-Heravi 2010
Study of 345 saffron samples from different countries found spectrophotometric technique could be used by saffron enterprises to obtain quick and more accurate data for picrocrocin determination. del Campo 2010
The yellowness of saffron which results from the presence of crocins (glycosyl esters of crocetin), its main color compounds, are examined in the crude methanol extracts by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and electrospray mass spectrometric detection. Lech 2009
The volatile components of Iranian saffron were extracted using ultrasonic solvent extraction technique and then were separated and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Jalali-Heravi 2009
A method for simultaneous determination of 46 semi-volatile organic contaminants and pollutants in saffron was developed for the first time using a stir bar sorptive extraction technique and thermal desorption in combination with gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Maggi 2008
Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship studies were performed for predicting the retention times of 43 constituents of saffron aroma, which were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Du 2008
Multivariate models were developed to determine the content of the main crocetin esters and picrocrocin from spectrophotometric data that could be used for routine quality control of saffron. Sánchez 2008
Various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS. Termentzi 2008
Occupational airborne contact dermatitis reported from saffron bulbs. Martínez 2007
With high performance liquid chromatography and UV/vis spectroscopy, the presence of hydrophilic carotenoids in the styles of three other Crocus taxa, endemic in Greece, C. boryi ssp. tournefortii, C. boryi ssp. boryi and C. niveus, is reported for the first time. Chryssanthi 2007
To study the effect of storage on the composition of saffron aroma 6 samples of saffron from different areas of Italy were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS. Safranal changes increased for 3 years, and then decreased after 5 years. Dauria 2006
Crocetin esters present in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas and in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit are the compounds responsible for their color. Of the 15 crocetin esters identified in the study, 5 new compounds were tentatively identified by using LC-ESI-MS. Carmona 2006
A non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis method for quantifying the seven crocin metabolites that are the major biologically active ingredients of saffron was developed & the new method is very useful for quality control in commercial saffron samples. Zougagh 2005
A screening method for detection of artificial colors (naphthol yellow, tartrazine, quinoline yellow, Sunset yellow, Allura red, amaranth, azorubine, Ponceau 4R and Red 2G) in saffron using derivative UV-Vis spectrometry after precipitation of crocetin is described. Zalacain 2005
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been applied for the first time to saffron spice to determine the chemical composition and geographical origin of 111 samples from the main producers' countries - Iran, Greece, and Spain. Zalacain 2005a
Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra and HPLC shows the active ingredients of tissue cultured cells are similar to those of saffron pistils, but their contents are different. [Article in Chinese] Sun 2004
Safranal, the main component of saffron's essential oil obtained using microsimultaneous hydro distillation -extraction and by ultrasound-assisted extraction, was quantified using a gas chromatography technique. Kanakis 2004
Three new monoterpenoids, crocusatin-J (1), -K (2), and -L (3), together with 31 known compounds were isolated and identified from the methanol extract of the petals of saffron (Crocus sativus). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Li 2004
Lectin from bulbs of Crocus sativus recognizing N-linked core glycan: isolation and binding studies using fluorescence polarization. Kakehi 2003
The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of 25 compounds including 4 new compounds, crocusatins F (1), G (2), H (3), and I (4a), isolated from an aqueous extract of Crocus sativus stigmas were evaluated in vitro using mushroom tyrosinase; the structures of 1-4 were established by spectral methods. Li 2002a
Five new naturally occurring monoterpenoids, crocusatins-A (1), -B (2a), -C (3), -D (4a) -E (5), a new lactate, sodium (2S)-(O-hydroxyphenyl)lactate (6), and eighteen known compounds were isolated and characterized from the pollen of Crocus sativus L. Li 2002
Three L-lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were detected in saffron corms, using potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor. Their pH optima were 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. Keyhani 2002
The nucleotide sequences of four species including stigma of Crocus sativus L., Carthamus tinctorius, showed great diversity, which could serve as markers for authentic identification of Stigma Croci to distinguish from its substitution and counterfeit. Ma 2001
An analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers. Aoki 2001
The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for the aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy were isolated by steam distillation and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zareena 2001
The sugar-binding specificity of Crocus sativus lectin (CLS ) by a solution phase method (fluorescence polarization) & three solid phase methods (flow injection, surface plasmon resonance, & microtiter plate), was studied and revealed that CLS recognizes Man3GlcNAc in the N-glycan core structure. Oda 2000
A lectin present in saffron corm isolated by gel-filtration, anion-exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography was purified and characterized. Escribano 2000
Supercritical extracts from five different saffron types were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography and their safranal contents were determined. Lozano 2000
Two new phenolic glucosides, a new gamma-lactone glucoside, and adenosine were isolated from sprouts of Cfocus sativus. All structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Gao 1999
A thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was applied to 252 different Spanish saffron samples to determine the authenticity of aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Alonso 1998
High-performance liquid chromatography-UV-visible photodiode-array detection on-line with mass spectrometry is the technique of choice for analysis of crocetin glycosides (crocins of saffron) carrying one to five glucoses and differentiation of their trans and cis isomers. Tarantilis 1995
[Comparison of natural yellow colors extracted from saffron (Crocus sativus Linne) and gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis)] [Article in Japanese] Kamikura 1985
[Quality investigation of Crocus sativus] [Article in Chinese] Jia 1984
[Riboflavine and thiamine contents of saffron, Crocus sativus linn.] Bhat 1953
History of Record
April 2019
November 2021