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Scientific Name:
Aspalathus linearis
Family Name:
Fabaceae
Common Name:
rooibos
Evidence of Activity
Analytical Chemistry
The volatile compounds of Aspalathus linearis aqueous extract were detected and analyzed using simultaneous distillation-extraction and steam distillation under reduced pressure. Sensory perception panels associated the ketones and phenolic compounds with 'woody' and 'grassy green' flavors, whereas the aldehydes and acidic compounds may contribute to 'floral' and 'fruity' flavors. Song 2021
The free radical scavenging activity and mechanism of two representative C-glycosyl dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin as well as their aglycones, 3-hydroxyphloretin and phloreti were evaluated using the density functional theory calculations. Xue 2020
Determination of total concentrations of manganese and zinc in acid-digested rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea leaves and corresponding tea infusions using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and estimation of the contribution of rooibos tea consumption to RDA of Mn and Zn. Mabuza 2020
Investigation of the descriptive sensory analysis and volatile compounds of bush, special, honeybush and rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea and the blend of bush tea with special, honeybush and rooibos, respectively. Malongane 2020
Investigation of the degradation of C-glucosidic dihydrochalcone aspalathin as the major phenolic compound in rooibos (Aspalathus linearis). Mertens 2020
Development of a sensory wheel and identification of chemical based reference standards for honeybush (Cyclopia sp.) and rooibos (Aspalathus linearis). du Preez 2020
Determination of the elemental contents of herbal teas, yerba mate and rooibos. Among the tested teas, the infusions of hibiscus, horsetail, nettle, rooibos and yerba mate contained the largest quantities of minerals. Dlugaszek 2019
Similar antioxidant capacities (ORAC and ABTS assays) were observed between cold- and regular-brewed green rooibos and microwave boiled-brewed red rooibos. However, boiling green and red rooibos delivered infusions with the highest antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol content. Damiani 2019
Enzymes in Aspalathus linearis participate in the oxidation of phenolic compounds during fermentation of the plant material during the production of red rooibos. De Beer 2019
Description of a simple and fast thin-layer chromatography method for visualizing aspalathin in rooibos tea and extracts. Amor Stander 2019
Development of a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and either LC coupled to atmospheric pressure ionisation and high-resolution MS or GC coupled to electron ionisation and tripled quadrupole MS for the determination of folpet and phthalimide in herbal infusions, including rooibos. Huertas-Pérez 2019
Screening of different teas, including black, green, white, oolong, yellow, rooibos, and others for concentration of selected metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd). Except for manganese, tea is not a major dietary source of the studied elements. 3 of 27 samples exceeded safe cadmium levels. Podwika 2018
Screening of 1105 samples of foods, herbal teas, and supplements collected in European retail outlets revealed 91% of teas and 60% of food supplements tested contained at least one pyrrolizidine alkaloid. The highest mean concentrations were found in rooibos tea, and the lowest in chamomile. Mulder 2018
Analysis of the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions, including Aspalanthus, using matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum. Cody 2018
Determination of the chemical variation in honeybush, rooibos, special, and bush tea using high resolution LCMS and nuclear magnetic resonance. Detected compounds included flavonoids, phenolics, lignans, and megastigmane glycoside. Malongane 2018
Characterization and creation of quantitative effect-directed profiles of 77 botanical extracts using a hyphenated HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-ESI+/ESI--(HR)MS method. Rooibos was found to contain 4.5mg/g of rosmarinic acid. Krüger 2017
Updated column technology combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry were applied to 17 populations of Aspalathus linearis to facilitate the identification of new compounds and chemical composition ecotype groupings. Stander 2017
A study of the time-temperature effects on the phenolic compounds and in vitro functional properties of aqueous extracts from red rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) demonstrated that the extraction temperature is the main factor leading to a higher extraction of bioactive compounds. Pereira 2017
A method for the extraction and setting specifications for aspalathin content in aqueous green rooibos extract was presented. Miller 2017
A method was presented using off-line comprehensive normal phase countercurrent chromatography×reversed phase liquid chromatography for the phenolic profiling of rooibos tea due to it's complex range of phenolic compounds. Walters 2017
As an alternatives to HPLC testing, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the analysis of the phenolics of honeybush and rooibos teas. CE was found to be less sensitive and reliable but cost efficient. Arries 2016
The transition of metals in various teas and herbal infusions including roobios (A. linearis) were studied. Schulzki 2016
High-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC), provides an alternative to synthesis of aspalathin, nothofagin, isoorientin,and orientin. High purity isolates of aspalathin and nothofagin resulted from HPCCC fractions and semi-preparative HPLC. de Beer 2015
A model for studying designed chromatographic data of complex samples was successfully applied to a case study aimed at evaluating the effect of pasteurization on the concentrations of various phenolic constituents of different quality grades rooibos tea and results were compared to those of ASCA. Marini 2015
Analysis of 24 samples of leaf tea and tea bags of yerba yate and rooibos from various areas for sodium, potassium, cooper, zinc, iron, manganese, phenolic acids and tannins showed differences in the mineral content of the dry weight, possibly due to taxonomic differences or origins. Rusinek-Prystupa 2015
HR-CS FAAS (High Resolution-Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) was used to determine several trace elements in rooibos and tea with seaweed. The results supported a fast, accurate, and inexpensive method for rooibos and tea with seaweed but not black or green tea. Paz-Rodriquez 2015
Rooibos(tea extract), potassium lactate (PL) and sodium diacetate (SDA) alone or in combination was added to Jokbal (pig's trotters) to study the effect on germination and growth of C. perfringens spores. The results support the use of rooibos as a natural food preservative in meat products. Park 2014
Models for the prediction of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of rooibos tea infusions were developed. The study suggests validation of the antioxidant markers prior to use as quality control. Orzel 2014
This study's purpose was to efficiently and concisely synthesize aspalathin,obtained by fermentation from rooibos tea leaves, for its sugar-lowering capabilities. BF3-catalyzed rearrangement of the β-C-glucoside, at higher temperatures, with hydrogenation increased the yield of aspalathin. Han 2014
Production season, quality grade and steam pasteurization on the phenolic content of rooibos, at 'cup-of-tea' strength infusions was studied. Steam pasteurization decreased most the phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid content was found to decrease with the quality of rooibos tea. Stanimirova 2013
The DF50 (dilution factor responsible for 50% of antioxidant activity) of Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis and Cochlospermum angolensis was calculated for different formulations and preparations. DF50 variations were shown and may be used to adjust formulations improving their efficacy. Barreira 2013
The compound (PPGA) found in unfermented rooibos, attributed for the taste (astringent) and mouth feel, was not isolated from all the leaves of different plants. Its quantitative presence affects the fermented plant material, extracts and infusions. Joubert 2013
The principal phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of fermented rooibos from different quality grades and geographic areas and seasons were studied. Different seasons and grades of teas had substantial individual variation of the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds. Joubert 2012
Two dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of rooibos phenolics showed great improvement in resolution and identification of the phenolics in both fermented and non fermented rooibos teas using this technique. Beelders 2012
Color changes of rooibos tea during fermentation was studied showing that the presence of dibenzofurans supported the importance of mechanical aspect of color formation. Heinrich 2012
Green tea and Rooibos inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro and in vivo by both competitive and non-competitive inhibition. This study elucidated the enzyme kinetics and compared with enalaprilat, showing that all three used mixed inhibitor mechanisms to inhibit ACE activity. Persson 2012
The optimised HPLC-DAD method was verified and used to quantitatively analyze aqueous infusions of unfermented and fermented rooibos. The major phenolic compounds were identified providing a faster and accurate method to facilitate study of the protective phenolic constituents of rooibos. Beelders 2012
Separation of 15 main phenolics from rooibos tea, is most efficient using different lengths of columns and different pressures. Using optimal methods to both fermented and unfermented aqueous rooibos tea extracts tentatively identifies 30 phenolic compounds. Cabooter 2011
HPLC-ESI-MS(TOF/IT) was used to rapidly and simply identify 25(aqueous) and 30 (ethanolic) phenolic compounds in rooibos simultaneously. Iswaldi 2011
Antioxidant activity of Rooibos flavonoids and flavone glycosides were studied by ABTS radical cation, metal chelating and Fe(II) -induced microsomal lipid peroxidation assays. Aspalathin and EGCG had the strongest radical scavengers. Lipid peroxidation was best inhibited by quercetin and EGCG. Snijman 2009
Online capillary gas chromatography-isotopes ratio mass spectrometry was used to authenticate synthetic from natural components from black, green and rooibos tea. del Mar Caja 2009
The effect of powdered rooibos tea extract on emulsifying oils and frying oil was studied. Rooibos had a significant effect on the thermal stability of emulsifying oil, due to its water solubility and less effect on frying oil due to the lower oil solubility. Fukasawa 2009
Quantitative analysis of specific micro and macroelements in 31 samples of traditional beverages including tea, coffee, mate, rooibos, honeybush, and chamomile. The amounts of all elements, except calcium, were low in rooibos and honeybush infusions. Malik 2008
Polyphenols present in rooibos, a popular herbal tea from Aspalathus linearis, were isolated in two steps. The purity and identity of isolated compounds was confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-diode array detector, or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Krafczyk 2008
The potential of UV spectrophotometry and an aluminium chloride colorimetric method to determine dihydrochalcone and mangiferin contents of green rooibos and honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) extracts, respectively, was investigated. Joubert 2008
FT-Raman spectroscopy was used for identification of aspalathin & quantification of dihyrochalcones in dried, green rooibos. Based on these data & reference HPLC values, multivariate calibration models were developed for quantification of aspalathin & combined dihydrochalcone. Baranska 2006
From the leaves of Aspalathus linearis, 24 known compounds and a new one, aspalalinin (25), were isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined based mainly on spectral evidence. Shimamura 2006
The total antioxidant activity (TAA)of unfermented rooibos (0.8 Trolox meq/g) resulted 2-fold higher than that of the fermented rooibos. When compared with different water infusions of Camellia sinensis (green and black tea), this TAA value was about 50% lower. Bramati 2003
An HPLC method using a C(18) reversed phase column was developed for the assay of 10 flavonoids in aqueous and methanolic infusions of Aspalathus linearis. Main compounds determined were the dihydrochalcone aspalthin, rutin, and orientin, and their content was in the range of 1.0 to 1.3 mg/g. Bramati 2002
Rooibos tea samples were collected & evaluated before & after fermentation, as well as after sun-drying & other processing techniques. Results indicated that the fermented tea had significantly (P < 0.05) lower antimutagenic & antioxidant potential than the unfermented tea. Standley 2001
The processed leaves and stems of Aspalathus linearis contain a new diastereomeric pair of the flavanones, (S)- & (R)-eriodictyol-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside formed via the oxidative cyclization of the dihydrochalcone, aspalathin, under conditions which mimic the fermentation process. Marais 2000
Three strains of Bradyrhizobium aspalati, which are the nitrogen-fixing symbionts of Aspalathus carnosa, A. hispida and A. linearis, were tested for the production of lipo-chitin oligosaccharide signal molecules using thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Boone 1999
A polysaccharide extracted with 1% sodium carbonate from Rooibos leaves (Aspalathus linearis) almost completely inhibited the binding of HIV-1 to MT-4 cells. It is inferred that polysaccharides from Aspalathus linearis are involved in the mechanism for virus binding to T cells. Nakano 1997
Various Salmonella serovars were isolated from rooibos tea, a natural, untreated agricultural product. The results of a study to identify the serovars is reported. Swanepoel 1987
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Robyn Urbach, MS
July 2005
MAJOR REVISION BY: Eli Scheinman, MES
January 2018
LATEST UPDATES BY: Oren Rabinowitz, MSc
November 2021