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Food as Medicine 
Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Lamiaceae)

Editor’s note: Every other month, HerbalEGram highlights a conventional food and briefly explores its history, traditional uses, nutritional profile, and modern medicinal research. We also feature a nutritious recipe for an easy-to-prepare dish with each article to encourage readers to experience the extensive benefits of these whole foods. With this series, we hope our readers will gain a new appreciation for the foods they see at the supermarket and frequently include in their diets. We would like to acknowledge ABC Chief Science Officer Stefan Gafner, PhD, and HerbalGram Associate Editor Hannah Bauman for their contributions to this project.


By Jenny Perez, ABC Education Coordinator


Overview

Deep purple perilla leavesPerilla frutescens, commonly known as perilla, perilla mint, shiso, wild sesame, beefsteak plant, or Chinese or Japanese basil, is an herbaceous, reseeding annual plant in the Lamiaceae family and native to the Southeast Asian and Indian highlands.1-4 Perilla belongs to a monotypic genus with only one species, and its primary genetic center of origin is China.1.2,5,6 Perilla’s characteristic square stems are covered with short hairs and support its oppositely arranged, ovate, coarsely serrated, green to purple leaves that have a musky, mint-like aroma.1 The leaves of the crispa variety have curled edges, creating a crinkled appearance.1,6 Small white or purple bell-shaped flowers appear in 4- to 6-inch-long terminal spikes in late summer through late fall.2,6,7 Green perilla cultivars produce fully green leaves; red perilla cultivars produce dark red or purple colors on both sides of the leaf; and green/red perilla cultivars produce leaves that are red on the underside and green on the top side.3

Perilla is divided into five varieties: var. frutescens, var. arguta, var. crispa, var. ariculato-dentata, and var. acuta.2 Of those varieties, var. frutescens and var. acuta are grown as a leafy green vegetable and used to process pickles; var. crispa is valued for its medicinal properties; and var. arguta is grown for its high yield of oil-rich seeds. Perilla is widely cultivated throughout China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and India. In Japan, Korea, and much of southern Asia, perilla is an important, widely consumed, and easily cultivated food plant, whose leaves and seeds have a long history of use as a warming, pungent food and medicine.6,8

Historical and Commercial Uses

Perilla leaves are used as a spicy culinary herb and leafy green vegetable in Asian, including Indian, cuisines.6,7 The leaves are often used in salads, soups, and pickles, as well as for condiments, garnishes, and food colorants. Fresh leaves can be wrapped around rice (Oryza sativa, Poaceae) balls, cheese, or salmon, battered with tempura, and deep-fried in sesame (Sesamum indicum, Pedaliaceae) oil, or chopped and mixed with ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingerberaceae) root to garnish stir-fries or cooked meat or fish.6,9 Perilla leaf is also used as a garnish wrapped around sashimi (raw fish) or paired with seafood.6

When pickled, red perilla leaves add a unique flavor and color to a variety of dishes. The flavor of red perilla is described as anise (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae)-like, with hints of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) and mint (Mentha spp., Lamiaceae), whereas green leaves have a stronger cinnamon spice flavor.7,9 The anthocyanins in red perilla leaves are stabilized in the presence of citric and acetic acids, and add color to foods like beni shoga, a type of pickled ginger traditionally eaten with sushi, and umeboshi, a pickled sour plum prepared from Prunus mume (Rosaceae) and ginger.2,6,8

Perilla has been recorded in Chinese medical classics as early as the year 500. During the Song Dynasty (960-1279), its use as a medicine was recorded in the text Taiping Huimin Hejiju Fang in 1110.1,2 In the Chinese herbal pharmacopoeia, perilla is listed as three different herbal medicines with distinct therapeutic indications: zǐ sū ye (perilla leaf), zǐ sū geng (perilla stem), and zǐ sū zi (perilla seed).1,2,10 The character (紫) refers to the distinctive purple color of red-leaf perilla, and (苏) means comfort, and refers to the soothing and dispersing effects of perilla when used as a medicine.1,2 The two most-used parts of the perilla plant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are the leaf (ye) and the seed (zi). Perilla stem is used to prevent miscarriage and as topical analgesic. It can be used alone but is more often mixed with perilla leaves.1,2,10

In the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, perilla stem and/or leaf is used alone or with fresh ginger as a tea.1,10 Deep green perilla leaf florescenceAdditionally, perilla has been used safely as a traditional herbal medicine to enhance fertility. Research indicates that perilla leaf and stem increase leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine that plays a crucial role in endometrial receptivity and proper implantation of the embryo.8

Perilla continues to be used in modern herbal practice, sometimes in simplified versions of TCM formulas (Table 1).10 Perilla is classified as a pungent and warm “surface-relieving” herbal medicine often used for respiratory and digestive system ailments and disorders.1 Fresh perilla leaf has been used to help the body process toxins from food poisoning.10 Because of this, fresh perilla leaf is often wrapped around sashimi or paired with shellfish and other seafood as a garnish that offers a tasty antidote to potential food poisoning.2 Perilla leaf juice is consumed as a digestive system tonic and to promote detoxification.

Dried perilla leaves appear in numerous TCM-based herbal prescriptions to enhance the overall therapeutic effect of the formulas.10 The pungent leaves are indicated for asthma as well as the common cold and similar acute disorders that include symptoms such as stuffy nose, cough, and headache.1,10 In Chinese medicine, perilla leaf tea, known as zǐ sū ye cha, is still commonly used in Korea for coughs and colds to disperse phlegm.1,2,8 Table 1 lists examples of classic TCM formulas that include perilla leaf that demonstrate its affinity for both the digestive and respiratory systems.

 

Table 1. Chinese Herbal Formulas that Contain Perilla1

Chinese Herbal Formula

Description

Perilla Plant Part

Indications for Use

Banxia Hou Pu Tang

Pinellia [Pinellia ternata, Araceae] and Magnolia [Magnolia officinalis, Magnoliaceae] Combination

Leaf

Nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, threat of miscarriage, sore throats, generalized anxiety

Shen Su Yin

Ginseng [Panax ginseng, Araliaceae] and Perilla Combination

Leaf

Common cold with lung complications

San He San

Aquilaria [Aquilaria spp., Thymelaeaceae] and Perilla Formula

Leaf

Stagnation of qi with abdominal fullness

Fen Xinqi Yin

Citrus [Citrus aurantium, Rutaceae] and Perilla Combination

Leaf

Stagnation of qi with stomach deficiency

Huoxiang Zhengqi San

Agastache [Agastache rugosa, Lamiaceae] Formula

Leaf

Gastroenteritis (food poisoning, etc.)

Su Zi Jiangqi Tang

Perilla Seed Combination

Seed

Asthmatic breathing with weakness in lower body

Huagai San

Ma-huang [Ephedra sinica, Ephedraceae] and Morus [Morus alba, Moraceae] Formula

Seed

Common cold with asthmatic breathing

Perilla seeds can be consumed raw, roasted, or powdered.1,8 Seeds are usually stir-fried and crushed before decocting to increase the availability of its phytonutrients.1 Perilla seed powder is used as a seasoning and is added to soup or rice as a thickener or to enhance flavor.8 In India, perilla seeds are an ingredient in chutneys and are also used in seasoning blends. Perilla seed is a major food in Korea and Vietnam, and a porridge made from perilla seed and rice is a common home remedy for treating colds.

In Asia, perilla seed oil (PSO) is consumed for its medicinal benefits more so than its flavor.7 PSO is used internally to ease asthma, wet coughs, abdominal pain, and constipation.2 Topically, PSO is used to massage infants, ease arthritis, and alleviate earache, and is an ingredient in skincare products. In Japan and China, perilla is a main ingredient of antidepressant herbal formulas such as Suyu-Jiaonang, Banxia Houpu decoction, and Hange-kouboku-to.8 When taken together, perilla leaf and seed deliver luteolin, omega-3 fatty acids, and rosmarinic acid, which reportedly impart significant neuroprotective and antidepressive benefits.1

Similar to flax (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae) oil, which is also rich in unsaturated fats, PSO is used industrially as a “drying oil” in paints, varnishes, lacquers, and for waterproofing cloth.1 PSO can also be used as lamp fuel.7

Nutrients and Phytochemicals

Fresh perilla leaves are a good source of folic acid, β-carotene, and minerals including iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus.6,8,9 Perilla leaves also contain carotenoids, polyphenols (including anthocyanins), alpha-tocopherols, and phytosterols.3 The anthocyanins shisonin, malonylshisonin, and other acylated cyanidin-derivatives impart red pigmentation to perilla leaves.3,11 When the antioxidant levels of green/red perilla leaves were compared with green perilla leaves, the green/red cultivar was found to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-sitosterol.3 Green perilla leaves had higher levels of phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K1), an important cofactor of enzymatic reactions involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism. Unusually, perilla leaves contain more tocopherols than its seeds. Perilla leaf contains more beta-carotene and lutein per serving compared to beta-carotene-rich carrots (Daucus carota, Apiaceae) and lutein-rich spinach (Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthaceae) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea, Brassicaceae).2,3

Perilla seeds are nutritious and aromatic, containing approximately 17% protein, 50% fat, and 30% volatile oils.8 Perilla seeds contain all nine essential amino acids (lysine, histidine, threonine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan) as well as six nonessential amino acids (cysteine, glutamine, proline, serine, tyrosine, and aspartate).8 Perilla seeds contain cardio- and neuro-protective policosanols, phytosterols (including beta-sitosterol), and tocopherols (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol). Policosanols are mixtures of long-chain alcohols that have cholesterol lowering and neuroprotective properties.1,2,10

Perilla seeds produce abundant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), γ-tocopherols, phytosterols, policosanols, and volatile oils.3 Perilla seeds contain 67% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid), 15% linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid), and 13% oleic acid (omega-9 fatty acid).1-3,6,7 Perilla seeds also contain 4-6% glycolipids and 2-3% phospholipids, which provide neuroprotective benefits.1

ALA is the most commonly available omega-3 fatty acid source available in plants.7 PSO contains more ALA than any other plant source, including flax seed oil, the most widely used source of ALA in dietary supplements.1 Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammatory processes in the body and impart several health benefits including decreasing high blood pressure and cholesterol levels and improving mood and brain health.1 PSO has been shown in vitro to decrease levels of enterotoxins associated with food poisoning and may be a useful addition to antibiotic treatment for S. aureus infections. Furthermore, PSO is potentially useful as a natural food preservative to both inhibit growth of S. aureus and suppress the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins.3

Rosmarinic acid (RA), primarily found in mint family plants, is considered to be one of the most potent antioxidant compounds. RA is the main phenolic compound in perilla leaves, with peak levels present when the plant is in full bloom.2,10 RA is reputed to aid digestion and inhibit bacterial growth.

Perilla’s complex flavor is attributed to its essential/volatile oil compounds concentrated in the leaves, flowers, and stems, which include perillaldehyde, anisol, apiol, menthol, and myristicin, although substantial variability in the essential oil composition exists depending on the cultivar.2 The antibacterial activity of perilla’s essential oils effectively inhibit pathogenic bacteria associated with gingivitis and periodontal disease. Perilla’s essential oils are also effective at inhibiting Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a common fungus that causes ringworm.2

Table 2. Phytochemicals in Perilla frutescens var. crispa1,2,8,10

Phytonutrient

Type of Compound

Plant Part

Associated Properties

Perillaldehyde

 

Monoterpene

Leaf and seed

Antibacterial, antifungal

Anisol

Monoterpene

Leaf and seed

Antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant

Shisonin

Anthocyanin

Leaf, stem

Antioxidant; natural colorant

Malonylshisonin

Anthocyanin

Leaf

Antioxidant; natural colorant

Rosmarinic acid

Polyphenol

Stem, leaf and seed

Antioxidant, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective

Caffeic acid

Phenylpropane

Leaf and seed

Hepatoprotective

Scutellarein

Flavonoid

Leaf

Anxiolytic

Catechin

Flavonoid

Leaf and seed

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory

Luteolin

Flavonoid

Leaf and seed

Smooth muscle relaxant (trachea), antioxidant, neuroprotective, reduces cholesterol

Apigenin

Flavonoid

Leaf and seed

Neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity effects

Chrysoeriol

Flavonoid

Seed

Antioxidant

Octacosanol

Long-chain fatty alcohol

Seed

Reduces cholesterol, neuroprotective

Hexacosanol

Long-chain fatty alcohol

Seed

Reduces cholesterol, neuroprotective

Triacontanol

Long-chain fatty alcohol

Seed

Reduces cholesterol, neuroprotective

Modern Research and Potential Health Benefits

A floresence of perilla leaves with dark green leaves and reddish purple veinsPerilla appears to have therapeutic potential in treating food poisoning, influenza and respiratory viruses, asthma, diabetes, and heart disease.3,12 It has been clinically investigated for its antiallergic, antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antidepressant properties.3,8

Respiratory System Effects and Coronavirus Research

In a recent study, a panel of single herb extracts commonly used in China to treat acute infections, including perilla leaf, were screened for potential antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.12 Results from this in vitro study demonstrate the ability of perilla leaf extract (PLE) to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in several ways. The authors hypothesize that at the early stages of viral infection, PLE may inhibit viral entry into host cells by directly inactivating the virion, inhibit virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, and inactivate viral particles and block their entry into host cells, reducing overall viral replication. However, the practical relevance of PLE in patients with COVID-19 needs to be established in large-scale clinical studies.12 Additionally, data supports that PLE is also capable of inhibiting enterovirus A71 and influenza virus strains, suggesting its potential to be a broad-spectrum, dose-dependent inhibitor of RNA viruses.

Anti-allergic Effects

Perilla leaf tea and ethanol extracts possess compounds that appear to reduce allergic reactions.2,10 Perilla leaf contains a glycoprotein that may inhibit hyaluronidase activity and mast cell degranulation.10 Ethanol extracts of perilla leaf have the potential to alleviate airway inflammation and hyperactivity associated with asthma, but clinical trials are necessary to confirm this.2,10 Studies indicate that perilla’s high RA content is key to its anti-allergic properties. A 21-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial using perilla extracts enriched with RA effectively decreased seasonal allergy symptoms (itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes) through inflammation modulation.13

A clinical study examining the effects of PSO on 14 asthma patients showed that supplementation with the oil improved lung function of asthmatics by regulating the production of eicosanoids and suppressing leukotriene production. Using corn (Zea mays, Poaceae) oil, a source of omega-6 PUFAs, as a comparator, results indicated that consuming ALA-rich PSO inhibited the production of LB4 and LC4 more efficiently than corn oil, which contains linoleic acid.14

Antioxidant Effects

A small pilot study of 12 healthy volunteers compared the difference in carotenoid levels in the blood after consuming a perilla or spinach preparation for 10 days, each amount delivering 5 mg lutein daily.15 Results indicated a significant increase in lutein and a moderate increase in β-carotene with both perilla and spinach, but there was a more pronounced increase in lutein associated with perilla consumption. Despite the increase in carotenoid levels after perilla or spinach intake, antioxidant capacity was not increased.

Neurological Effects

Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other cognitive abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Dementia is caused by abnormal changes in the brain that trigger a decline in cognitive function. The most prominent type of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is characterized by the formation of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain tissue.16 Omega-3 fatty acids have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and are an energy source for the brain, enhancing cognitive function and A pile of tiny black, brown, and grey perilla seedsbrain health. Cold-pressed PSO, which contains a significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids, has demonstrated protective effects against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and is being evaluated as an antioxidative therapy for patients with mild to moderate dementia.8

In a double blind, randomized controlled trial focused on the safety and tolerability of PSO, 239 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia were given 500 mg of PSO or olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae) oil as the placebo three times a day for six months, in addition to their standard treatments.16 About 5% of participants in each group were not able to comply with the dose frequency. Of the 182 participants that completed the study, nausea and vomiting were the most common clinical side effects that occurred equally in both groups.

Results from a separate six-month randomized controlled trial on elderly patients experiencing age-related cognitive decline indicated that dietary supplementation with PSO (7 g daily) significantly increased blood levels of ALA and enhanced cognitive function measured by Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) score.8,17

Cardiovascular System Effects

The incidence of cardiovascular disease is greatly influenced by blood lipid profiles. A diet abundant in PUFAs, especially omega-3 fatty acids, strongly correlates to significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

PSO was evaluated for its ability to improve blood lipid profiles in a 10-month dietary intervention study conducted in Japan with 20 elderly participants living in a nursing home.18 During this period, participants replaced the soybean (Glycine max, Fabaceae) oil in their diet with PSO. Dietary fish consumption was kept at a consistent level to create a baseline from which effects of PSO consumption could be measured. After three months, blood levels of ALA levels had increased from 0.8% to 1.6%, and at 10 months, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels increased from 2.5% to 3.6% and 5.3% to 6.4%, respectively.18 The conversion of dietary ALA to EPA and DHA is a slow process and requires sufficient levels of delta-6-desaturase, an enzyme of which concentrations decrease with age. After 10-months of the PSO diet, total omega-3 fatty acid levels increased from 9.4% to 12.4%. These increases returned to baseline after the washout period. Results indicated that replacing soybean cooking oil with perilla seed cooking oil, which delivers approximately 3 g ALA daily, significantly increased levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood, which may help prevent cardiovascular and other chronic disease.

PSO is not currently approved for medicinal use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but is commercially available as a dietary supplement, offering a plant-based source of omega-3 fatty acids.4 Research indicates that PSO can significantly reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines and support cardiovascular and neurological health.4,8 Like fish oil, dietary supplementation with PSO reduces levels of Prevotella spp., a gram-negative bacterium associated with the etiology and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and respiratory infections.8

Digestive System Effects

Approximately 20% of the population suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Common symptoms include GI rumbling, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and gas.19 A pilot study of 50 healthy participants that were experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort and mild constipation were administered either placebo or a proprietary perilla leaf extract known as Benegut® (Vital Solutions GmbH; Langenfeld, Germany). Participants took two capsules, one before breakfast and one before dinner, for four weeks. Each active capsule contained 150 mg perilla leaf extract. Results indicated a significant reduction in GI symptoms (GI rumbling, feeling of fullness, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and gas) almost immediately in the perilla group, with continued improvement over the duration of the study. The perilla extract group consistently showed a larger reduction in GI symptoms compared to the placebo group. In the placebo group, only abdominal discomfort improved after four weeks of intake.

Individuals with irritable bowel syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease may find relief from consumption of ALA-rich PSO to soothe and protect tissues while reducing inflammation.2

Consumer Considerations

Bright green perilla leavesWhen grown in gardens, perilla attracts butterflies and its strongly aromatic leaves can repel unwanted insects such as ticks.7 After gaining popularity for its ornamental beauty and utility, perilla quickly escaped cultivated areas, becoming a noxious weed in warm, humid climates of the eastern and midwestern United States.1,7 This has become especially problematic where livestock graze. All plant parts, especially the flowerheads, are toxic to deer and livestock and can cause atypical interstitial pneumonia. This results from eating contaminated hay or inhalation exposure to a constituent known as perillaldehyde.2,5,7,10

Perilla leaf is recognized as a culinary herb and is safe to consume.4 Occupational contact dermatitis has been reported in Japan and Korea by perilla harvesters because of constant exposure to the essential oils (primarily a reaction to perillaldehyde).1,4,10 There has been a reported case of anaphylaxis after ingestion of perilla seeds. PSO and other oils high in omega-3 fatty acids may increase the blood-thinning effects of blood-thinning medications such as warfarin, clopidogrel, and aspirin, increasing the risk of internal bleeding.4 Those who take these and similar medications should consult with their health care provider before using PSO as a dietary supplement to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Nutrient Profile8,20,21

Per 100 g perilla leaf

Macronutrients

33 calories
3.68 g protein
5.87 g carbohydrate
0.36 g total fat

Micronutrients

Excellent source of:

Vitamin K: 690 mcg (575% DV)
Manganese: 2.01 mg (87.4% DV)
Chromium: 17.6 mcg (50.3% DV)
Vitamin C: 42.8 mg (47.6% DV)
Folate: 110 mcg (27.5% DV)
Vitamin A: 236 mcg (26.2% DV)
Riboflavin: 0.34 mg (26.2% DV)
Vitamin E: 3.9 mg (26% DV)
Copper: 0.20 mg (22.2% DV)

Very good source of:

Iron: 2.69 mg (14.9% DV)
Zinc: 1.3 g (11.8% DV)
Thiamin: 0.13 mg (10.8% DV)
Potassium: 500 mg (10.6% DV)

Good source of:

Calcium: 118 mg (9.1% DV)
Phosphorus: 70 mg (5.6% DV)

Also provides:

Dietary Fiber: 1.2 g (4% DV)

Trace amounts:

Magnesium: 2.01 mg (0.48% DV)

DV = Daily Value as established by the FDA, based on a 2,000-calorie diet.

Recipe: Perilla Chimichurri9

Courtesy of the Medical University of South Carolina Urban Farm

Enjoy perilla chimichurri as a marinade for fish, meat, or vegetables before grilling or serve on the side as a condiment. Toss diced new potatoes in it before roasting. Use as a spread on sandwiches. Add to any salad dressing or mayo-based dressing, such as for egg salad, potato salad, or coleslaw, to boost flavor.

Ingredients:

  • 2 red or green Thai chilies, with seeds, thinly sliced
  • 3/4 cup finely chopped perilla leaves
  • 2 tablespoons toasted sesame oil
  • 1 tablespoon soy sauce or tamari
  • 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper.

Directions:

  1. Mix all ingredients in a small bowl. Cover and chill for at least three hours.
  2. Store in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to one week.

 

Image Credits:

All perilla leaf images ©2021 Steven Foster
Perilla seed image courtesy of Jeongah

References

  1. Dharmananda S. Perilla leaf, seed, and stem. Institute of Traditional Medicine website. July 2010. Available at: itmonline.org/articles/perilla/perilla.htm. Accessed February 22, 2021.
  2. Ahmed H. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Perilla frutescens. Molecules. 2019;24:102-125.
  3. Saini RK, Keum YS, Rengasamy KRR. Profiling of nutritionally important metabolites in green/red and green perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars: A comparative study. Industrial Crops & Products. 2020;151:112441.
  4. Perilla seed oil. University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. PHAR6157-Supplements and Nutraceuticals. Available at: https://sites.google.com/a/umn.edu/phar6157s13/home/perilla-seed-oil. Accessed March 9, 2021.
  5. Deane G. Perilla, Shiso. Eat the Weeds website. 2013. Available at: eattheweeds.com/perilla/. Accessed March 9, 2021.
  6. Van Wyk BE. Food Plants of the World. Portland, OR: Timber Press; 2005.
  7. McCracken M. Perilla, frutescens: An interesting and valuable addition to the garden. April 2010. NC State Extension: Master Gardener, Mecklenburg County. Available at: www.mastergardenersmecklenburg.org/perilla-p-frutescens-an-interesting-and-valuable-addition-to-the-garden.html. Accessed February 22, 2021.
  8. Dhyani A, Chopra R, Garg M. A review on nutritional value, functional properties and pharmacological application of perilla (Perilla frutescens). Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal. 2019;12(2):649-660.
  9. The Medical University of South Carolina Urban Farm. Shiso. Charleston, SC: MUSC; October 2018. Available at: https://web.musc.edu/-/sm/enterprise/resources/health-and-wellness/ohp/urban-farm/f/shiso.ashx?la=en. Accessed February 24, 2021.
  10. Yu H, Qiu JF, Ma LJ, et al. Phytochemical and phytopharmacological review of Perilla frutescens (Labiatae), a traditional edible-medicinal herb in China. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2017;108:375-391.
  11. Meng L, Lozano Y, Bombarda I, et al. Polyphenol extraction from eight Perilla frutescens Comptes Rendus Chimie. 2009;12(5):602-611.
  12. Tang WF, Tsai HP, Chang YH, et al. Perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaf extract inhibits SARS-CoV-2 via direct virus inactivation. Biomedical Journal. 2021. BJ390 proof.
  13. Takano H, Osakabe N, Sanbongi C, et al. Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched with rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2004;229(3):247-254.
  14. Okamoto M, Mitsunobu F, Ashida K, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids compared with n-6 fatty acids on bronchial asthma. Internal Medicine. 2000;39(2):107-111.
  15. Schirrmacher G, Skurk T, Hauner H, and Grassmann J. Effect of Spinacia oleraceae [sic] and Perilla frutescens on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in an intervention study in healthy individuals. Plant Foods in Human Nutrition. 2010;65:71-76.
  16. Kamalashiran C, Pattaraarchachai J, Muengtaweepongsa S. Feasibility and safety of perilla seed oil as an additional antioxidative therapy in patients with mild to moderate dementia. Journal of Aging Research. 2018:5302105.
  17. Hashimoto M, Yamashita K, Matsuzaki K, et al. Beneficial effects of perilla oil and brain training intervention on cognition in elderly Japanese. Innovation in Aging. 2017;(1)467.
  18. Ezaki O, Takahashi M, Shigematsu T, et al. Long-term effects of dietary α-linolenic acid from perilla oil on serum fatty acid composition and on the risk factors of coronary heart disease in Japanese elderly subjects. Journal of Nutrition Science Vitaminology. 1999;45:759-772.
  19. Buchwald-Werner S, Fujii H, Reule C, Schoen C. Perilla extract improves gastrointestinal discomfort in a randomized placebo controlled double blind human pilot study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2014;14:173-183.
  20. Health and nutrition facts in Japanese food 2: Perilla leaf/Shiso. Shizuoka Gourmets. Available at: https://shizuokagourmet.com/en/2010/05/04/health-nutrition-facts-in-japanese-food-2-perilla-leafshiso%E7%B4%AB%E8%98%87/. Accessed March 14, 2021.
  21. Korean Sesame Leaf. Fatsecret Food Database and Calorie Counter. Available at: fatsecret.com/calories-nutrition/generic/korean-sesame-leaf?portionid=5149924&portionamount=1.000. Accessed March 14, 2021.
References